Driving LEDs Directly From Microcontroller Pins

The first and third methods you show are fine, assuming the resistor is sized so that the 8 mA maximum port pin current is not exceeded. The difference between these two methods is whether the low or high side drive transistor in the processor is in series with the LED. Sometimes the low side transistors are a little more beefy, which is why you see method three more than method 1. However, either method is fine as long as you take care to not exceed the current spec for the pin. Also note that some processors have a total current spec that must not be exceeded. For example, you could have 10 pins each driving a LED at 8 mA, which would be fine individually for each pin. However, if the overall processor spec is that all I/O pins together can't source our sink more than 50 mA, for example, then you're still out of spec.Your method two is wrong as drawn. It will likely damage the LED or transistor. To fix it, add a resistor in series with the LED so that the LED current does not exceed its maximum rated value. For example, let's say the LED is rated for 20 mA max, and it drops 2.1 V in that case. With a 9 V supply, that leaves 6.9 V accross the resistor and the transistor. The saturation voltage of the transistor is probably around 200 mV, but for worst case analisys let's just say it's 0. 6.

9 V / 20 mA 345 , so the next size up common value of 360 would be fine. Working backwards, and this time assuming the 200 mV drop on Q1, the LED current will be 6.7 V / 360 18.6 mA. Even in a side by side comparison, it will be difficult for humans to distinguish that from the brightness achieved by 20 mA thru the LED.

Here is yet another method, which is useful when there is a external supply available that is a bit more than the processor voltage plus the LED drop:This uses the transistor as a switchable current sink, so the exact power voltage (9 V in your case) doesn't matter over a wide range. When the base is 0, the transistor is off and the LED is off. When the base is driven to 3.3 V by the digital output, the emitter will be about 700 mV less, or 2.

6 V in this example. The current thru R1 will therefore be 2.6 V / 150 17.3 mA. Since most of this current comes from the collector due to the gain of the transistor, that will be the LED current to a reasonable approximation.Note that the 9 V supply voltage didn't enter into the calculations. As long as it is above a minimum value, the transistor will sink very nearly the same current because the transistor gain changes little with collector voltage. If we give the transistor about 700 mV C-E voltage so that it is nicely in its linear region, then the supply must be at least the digital output level plus the LED drop, which comes to 5.4 V in this case. That means the "9 V" supply can vary down to about 5.

4 V without effecting the operation of this circuit.The maximum allowable supply is limited by the power dissipation in the transistor. Let's say we want to keep it to 150 mW or less. 150 mW / 17.

3 mA 8.

7 V, which is the maximum C-E voltage for the transistor when it is on. Since R1 will drop 2.6 V and the LED 2.1, that means the supply can't exceed 13.4 V. So this circuit will work nicely and run the LED at the same brightness even if the "9 V" supply ranges from about 5.4 to 13.4 volts

In the circuit I'm designing, I'm using an at91sam7s128 which is a micro-controller with an ARM7 core.

Its PIO0 to PIO31 provide 8mA max which is low to handle direct driving of LEDs like this:

simulate this circuit Schematic created using CircuitLab

UPDATED: thanks to jippie and Olin Lathrop for telling me about the resistor in series with the LED.

So some designers use a safer method, connecting PIO to the base of a transistor that acts like a switch:

simulate this circuit

Others just make a simple trick. They connect the anode of the LED to the power supply and the cathode to a PIO:

simulate this circuit

In the last method the LED will turn on when the PIO goes low - acting like GND - and current will be taken from power supply, not from the PIO like in the first method. So do I have to take care of maximum current of the PIO, although it just acts like GND, not like a power supply (like in the first method).

When I set the PIO low, does the pin really get connected to GND or something else?

NOTE: In this Atmel evaluation kit they use the last method, but I need to make sure.

·OTHER ANSWER:

In the circuit I'm designing, I'm using an at91sam7s128 which is a micro-controller with an ARM7 core.

Its PIO0 to PIO31 provide 8mA max which is low to handle direct driving of LEDs like this:

simulate this circuit Schematic created using CircuitLab

UPDATED: thanks to jippie and Olin Lathrop for telling me about the resistor in series with the LED.

So some designers use a safer method, connecting PIO to the base of a transistor that acts like a switch:

simulate this circuit

Others just make a simple trick. They connect the anode of the LED to the power supply and the cathode to a PIO:

simulate this circuit

In the last method the LED will turn on when the PIO goes low - acting like GND - and current will be taken from power supply, not from the PIO like in the first method. So do I have to take care of maximum current of the PIO, although it just acts like GND, not like a power supply (like in the first method).

When I set the PIO low, does the pin really get connected to GND or something else?

NOTE: In this Atmel evaluation kit they use the last method, but I need to make sure.

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What Would Happen If a Charger Tried to Pull More Current Than a QC 3.0 Source Can Output?
There are four possibilities maybe more but mostly 4.One the voltage will drop relative to the current being pulled. The voltage source is going out of regulation.Two the regulator will going into a overload mode and turn off Many Regulators have self protection circuits. This may cycle on and off until the condition is fixed. Three, the circuit will burn or short circuit or some other destructive state. A burned fuse or inductor or mosfet or ic. Four, unlikely, the circuit will go into a current limit mode.There is no way to know without all the part numbers and schematic. Of both your charger and the target (how it will act to under current conditions is even more complicated and guesswork) So best to not overload your circuit. The significant difference between the two source power output should be enough to make this common senseI've got this charger: It takes 12.7 - 16V input from a car and outputs 13.05V at 6.1A (80W)I want to utilize a USB-PD and / or USB-C QC 3.0 charger.I can get a USB-C trigger: It connects to a USB-C QC or PD power source and allows me to select the output voltage.What I want to do is connect:QC 3.0 Power Supply -> USB trigger set to output 12V -> 12V car charger for DJI battery -> DJI batteryThe idea is to use a QC 3.0 power supply to recharge a DJI battery (albeit slowly).QC 3.0 can only output up to 18W of power, so if I used the USB trigger to select 12V as the output voltage, the QC 3.0 source would only output a max of 1.5A, but the DJI battery charger wants to output 80W of power.Would this destroy the QC 3.0 source? Or would the QC 3.0 source just happily output a continuous 12V @ 1.5A and the DJI charger would simply charge the batteries at a slower rate (18W?) without damaging anything?·OTHER ANSWER:I've got this charger: It takes 12.7 - 16V input from a car and outputs 13.05V at 6.1A (80W)I want to utilize a USB-PD and / or USB-C QC 3.0 charger.I can get a USB-C trigger: It connects to a USB-C QC or PD power source and allows me to select the output voltage.What I want to do is connect:QC 3.0 Power Supply -> USB trigger set to output 12V -> 12V car charger for DJI battery -> DJI batteryThe idea is to use a QC 3.0 power supply to recharge a DJI battery (albeit slowly).QC 3.0 can only output up to 18W of power, so if I used the USB trigger to select 12V as the output voltage, the QC 3.0 source would only output a max of 1.5A, but the DJI battery charger wants to output 80W of power.Would this destroy the QC 3.0 source? Or would the QC 3.0 source just happily output a continuous 12V @ 1.5A and the DJI charger would simply charge the batteries at a slower rate (18W?) without damaging anything?
The Hottest Questions About Power Supply
Do you want to know about power supply? Here are some frequently asked questions.1. Will this video card work with this power supply?It needs approximately 149 Watt because the PSU requirements on most graphic cards are not really what they need to be. I am running a HD 4650 that needs "400W" but I only have 305W and has been working well for 2 years. Oh yeah not sure if it needs a 6 pin power connector so can not help you on that question. At the bottom is a link to "REAL" PSU requirements. EDIT: Oh I just looked on amazon and the XFX version needs a 6 pin power connector so it just depends on your model. I prefer XFX brand.2. How does a switching power supply differ from a power supply?Edit, solutions is doing weird and wonderful issues. I even have got here upon that while you are applying/ construction some thing with diverse relays, and applying SPDT and DPDT relays, it fairly is extra low priced interior the long-term to apply DPDT relays in determination to SPDT relays. it can be a 3PST Wingman3. Why is my power supply not staying on?A few ideas (and no, I am not making ANY assumption on your knowledge/Tech Level) A) Is board touching the case (Mounted correctly) B) Have you Disconnect all Peripherals and just booted the board. C) Are you using on-board Video or a separate Card (Voltages) Different cards (Video) use different voltages, the same as CPU's etc so I would disconnect all the extras and just boot the board. Does it beep? If the shut down is instant, then I would look towards you having a bad Motherboard (and/or CPU) but generally I would lean towards the board, but bear in mind, I am not there to assess, nor here to Judge.. Did you connect the speaker so you can hear any Bios Beep codes?4. Help with creating a computer--Power Supply?It depends on what you are going to be using it for besides average gaming. If you are going to power two monitors and color laser printer and some external USB drives as well as a high end multi-core CPU 600w wo not do. Some gamers get a bigger than necessary PS since they know they with get more memory, solid state harddrives, etc as their budget allows ( 1000W makes sense). However, if you are running only one monitor, no externals, and have a reasonable CPU 600 w is sufficient5. Power supply problem on my laptop?Your battery may be completely discharged. Just like other rechargeable NI-CD batteries, the Lithium-Ion battery will eventually loose its ability to keep its charge. The most simple solution is to buy a new battery.6. Buck converter based switching power supply?This is a simplified version of the circuit you have. Note the polarity is backwards from your circuit:7. How to test a Power Supply?Power supply Tester. They are cheap and will test ALL of your out put voltages and wattage. You can get them about anywhere. Very smart thing to do!8. 12VDC power supply for backyard stereo?go find your self a old pc in the trash and gank the power supply and tie into the 12vdc lines9. What power supply do i get?450w is fine!10. will my power supply power a 9600gt?It really depends on how long and how hard you push your system, you max out your wattage all the time might burn out that PSU, but most likly not11. help about power supply please?while a capability furnish is rated at 4 hundred watts meaning it may furnish as much as 4 hundred watts of DC capability. the capability furnish takes AC capability out of your wall outlet at a hundred and twenty volts and converts it to 12v, 5v, 3.3v DC for the drives, CPU, motherboard, and so forth. .. the certainty is that your computing device will use around one hundred watts AC capability or much less. A Kill-A-Watt meter might properly be bought for around $20 and that assist you to comprehend the real capability utilization of any equipment12. Power supply upgrade? ?Put it this way, a good quality 460W PSU may be better than a cheap 500W PSU. The key thing is the 12V current capacity, and the 6870 requires two PCI-E 6 pin power connectors. Most 460W PSU have only one, or none. So, I do question how they can properly power the 6870 with a 460W PSU, unless they had one designed to match the card. Do not accept that system if they use Molex to PCI-E power adapters, that can cause voltage drops and strange video card problems... PS: Their web site says there is an option for a 6770 video card, no mention of the 6870... A 6770 will run with a 450W PSU...
What Warning Labels Could You See on Products to Be Used in Space?
Nowadays there are warning labels on most everything: this is flammable, that will cause injury because it's sharp, this substance is poisonous, and that canister is under pressure, but what types of warning labels would you need for items designed to be used in a weightless environment? There is a very large set of possibilities. For real-world examples do some research on what NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, CNSA do. The list below is just off the top of my head. Cannot be used in microgravity. Must be used in gravity field greater than X% of earth.Must be used in gravity field less than X% of earth.Cannot withstand acceleration greater than Y. Must be aligned along a certain axis for acceleration.Must be used at an atmospheric pressure greater than X.Must be used at an atmospheric pressure less than X. Cannot be used in Heliox atmosphere. Must only be unwrapped/used in an environment with a scrubber that can handle a particular chemical.Must be decontaminated via (some method) when moving from atmospheric composition X to composition Y.Must be exposed to hard vacuum for X hours before being brought into atmosphere. Requires shielding in a certain EM range. Requires grounding. Requires shielding from certain cosmic rays.Cannot be used during a solar flare of greater than X intensity.Cannot be used if organism X is present.Can only be used if organism X is present. Cannot be taken to an uncontaminated planetary environment.Can be injected into a person only if they have a certain symbiote/implant/genetic marker.Can only be used in temperature range X to Y. Can only be stored in temperature range X to Y.Do not change temperature at a rate greater than Z/sec OTHER ANSWER: The thing about silly warnings on earth is that most of them were added because someone, somewhere actually did it and did try to sue the manufacturer. Whether the warning can be followed in practice is irrelevant, as the only purpose is to try to give the manufacturer more leverage in case of a legal claim.So considering the actual incidents and accidents that have occurred in spaceflight, we can color things up a bit and warn:.
Kev Raug Rho Tawm Sensor Tam Sim No.
Thawj kauj ruam yog nyeem los ntawm tus neeg siv phau ntawv qhia, thiab paub tseeb tias nws tsis nyob hauv \"kev kuaj\" hom. Yog tias tom qab nyeem phau ntawv nws tseem tsis ua haujlwm, Kuv yuav pauv nws rau chav sib txawv.Yog chav tshiab tsis ua haujlwm, kuv yuav sim ua hom txawv / qauv, lossis tsis nco qab txog kev siv lub cev ua haujlwm.Kuv tau sim los txhim kho lub Lutron 2 AMP kev nyob ua haujlwm lub lis xaus no, hloov qhov kev hloov pauv ib leeg-ncej yooj yooj yim.Txoj kev txhim kho zoo li tsis yooj yim txaus. Txawm li cas los xij, thaum lub sijhawm los ntsuas nws, nws nthuav tawm cov tsos mob funny. Kwv yees li 9 ntawm 10 zaug nws pom cov lus tsa suab thiab sim qhib lub teeb, lub teeb yuav nyob rau kev sib cais ntawm ib pliag, thiab tom qab ntawd tawm mus. Qee zaus, lub teeb yuav tig thiab nyob twj ywm, ua haujlwm ib txwm muaj.Kuv xav tias qhov hloov yuav xav tau qhov tsawg kawg nkaus ntawm qhov tsis txaus - Kuv tau siv 4 LED qhov muag teev, tab sis tom qab hloov mus rau 4 qhov muag tsis pom, qhov teeb meem tseem nyob.Qhov ntsuas no yuav tsum muaj lub xov hluav taws xob hauv av, uas yog siv los ua lub zog ntawm kev taws teeb hluav taws xob. Kuv paub tseeb tias kev ua haujlwm grounding. Nws puas tau. Qhov tseeb, lub sensor yuav tsis txawm ua haujlwm tsis muaj cov xov txuas hauv av.Kuv mam li sim ntsuas tus tes hloov qhov chaw nyob rau qhov chaw sib txawv, tseem hloov tus ncej ib leeg hloov. Kev teeb tsa ntawm cov xov hlau tau zoo ib yam rau qhov chaw dhau los. Lub sijhawm no, cov taws teeb yuav tsis tig rau txhua qhov.Kuv xav tias kuv yuav tsum tau tawg lub sensor, tab sis kuv tau sim nws dua ntawm thawj qhov chaw kom paub meej. Nws tsis tawg (tsawg kawg tsis ua kom tiav), thiab tseem ua rau pom \"tam sim ntawd tom qab tig teeb rau\" qhov teeb meem ntawm thawj qhov chaw.Kuv txhav. Puas yog nws xav tias kuv tau txais chav haujlwm tsis zoo? Los yog puas yog cov teeb meem tsis zoo ntawm cov av (\"tsis muaj zog hauv av\")? Cov lus qhia / cov lus pom zoo raug qhuas!TSUM LUS TEB:Kuv tau sim los txhim kho lub Lutron 2 AMP kev nyob ua haujlwm lub lis xaus no, hloov qhov kev hloov pauv ib leeg-ncej yooj yooj yim.Txoj kev txhim kho zoo li tsis yooj yim txaus. Txawm li cas los xij, thaum lub sijhawm los ntsuas nws, nws nthuav tawm cov tsos mob funny. Kwv yees li 9 ntawm 10 zaug nws pom cov lus tsa suab thiab sim qhib lub teeb, lub teeb yuav nyob rau kev sib cais ntawm ib pliag, thiab tom qab ntawd tawm mus. Qee zaus, lub teeb yuav tig thiab nyob twj ywm, ua haujlwm ib txwm muaj.Kuv xav tias qhov hloov yuav xav tau qhov tsawg kawg nkaus ntawm qhov tsis txaus - Kuv tau siv 4 LED qhov muag teev, tab sis tom qab hloov mus rau 4 qhov muag tsis pom, qhov teeb meem tseem nyob.Qhov ntsuas no yuav tsum muaj lub xov hluav taws xob hauv av, uas yog siv los ua lub zog ntawm kev taws teeb hluav taws xob. Kuv paub tseeb tias kev ua haujlwm grounding. Nws puas tau. Qhov tseeb, lub sensor yuav tsis txawm ua haujlwm tsis muaj cov xov txuas hauv av.Kuv mam li sim ntsuas tus tes hloov qhov chaw nyob rau qhov chaw sib txawv, tseem hloov tus ncej ib leeg hloov. Kev teeb tsa ntawm cov xov hlau tau zoo ib yam rau qhov chaw dhau los. Lub sijhawm no, cov taws teeb yuav tsis tig rau txhua qhov.Kuv xav tias kuv yuav tsum tau tawg lub sensor, tab sis kuv tau sim nws dua ntawm thawj qhov chaw kom paub meej. Nws tsis tawg (tsawg kawg tsis ua kom tiav), thiab tseem ua rau pom \"tam sim ntawd tom qab tig teeb rau\" qhov teeb meem ntawm thawj qhov chaw.Kuv txhav. Puas yog nws xav tias kuv tau txais chav haujlwm tsis zoo? Los yog puas yog cov teeb meem tsis zoo ntawm cov av (\"tsis muaj zog hauv av\")? Cov lus qhia / cov lus pom zoo raug qhuas!
Lub Chaw Kho Dej Txawb Siv Tau Zoo Siv Tom Qab Dej Nyab thiab Kev Puas Tsuaj
Lub chaw kho dej txawb tau tuaj yeem txuas rau ntawm lub thawb thiab nws tuaj yeem xaub rau cov haujlwm nyob hauv. Chav tsev feem ntau nruab nrog thim rov qab osmosis kev kho mob raws li lub cev lim dej thiab lwm cov kauj ruam kom lim thiab dej huv.Nrog kev sib xyaw ntawm cov thim rov qab osmosis thiab muag khoom lub zog, dej tuaj yeem lim tawm cov dej thiab muab cov dej qee qhov sib npaug. Raws li koj paub, cov dej nyuaj muaj magnesium thiab calcium, thaum koj ntxiv cov tawv nqaij nws tuaj yeem tiv thaiv lub zog ntawm magnesium thiab calcium.Txo cov tshuaj fluoride hauv dejLawv tseem yuav txo cov tshuaj chlorides thiab cov dej sulfur hauv dej, nrog rau, tshem tawm arsenic, fluoride, nitrates, thiab lwm yam ions tuaj yeem ua rau hnyav hlau. Nws yuav cia koj ntxuav qhov dej kom rov qab siv nws. Lawv raug siv thaum nws los txog rau qhov chaw ua roj av brine thiab kawb pob zeb (los yog dej rov qab los ntawm hauv thaj tsam ntawm lub mines). Nws suav hais tias yog kev lag luam pov tseg kev kho, vim nws ntxuav cov dej huv uas pom thiab tom qab ntawd nws cais cov khib nyiab.Cov kab ke no yog txhawm rau ntxuav cov dej hauv av los yog dej nag uas muaj nyob hauv cov chaw tsim kho. Nws yuav ua haujlwm zoo thaum huab cua muaj paug nrog qee hom micro-hais. Kev kho dej txawb ntawm tes yuav tso cov tshuaj dej haus rau hauv nws cov dej uas yog pumped.Feem ntau ntawm cov tshuab no tuaj yeem ntim tau 12,500 nkas loos dej. Nws yuav ua rau cov khoom tawg thiab cov pov thawj kom tsis tu ncua thiab tseem niaj hnub ua cov dej kom nws tuaj yeem tshem tawm ntawm cov khoom paug ntau li ntau tau. Qhov kev nqus thiab tso dej tawm yog rau caum nkas loos dej nyob rau ib feeb, yog li nws pheej haus dej ntau ntxiv rau hauv thiab tso cov dej ntshiab.Txo teeb meem nrog dej hausQhov laj thawj yog vim li cas ntau lub tuam txhab yuav xev cov tshuab no yog li lawv tuaj yeem ua kom tshem tawm cov dej uas thaiv lossis txwv tsis pub lawv ua haujlwm thiab cia cov dej ua kom huv thiab nqus mus rau hauv tus txiv neej qhov. Nov yog ib txoj hauv kev uas cov tuam txhab tsim kho thiab mining tuaj yeem ua lub luag haujlwm tau zoo. Lawv ntxuav cov dej ua ntej lawv muab pov tseg lawv thiaj li tsis ua rau ib tus neeg raug mob thaum lawv muab dej pov tseg.Thaum lub tuam txhab xauj ib lub tshuab no, lawv yuav siv nyiaj li ntawm $ 900- $ 1200 nyob rau ib hnub los tso cov dej tawm ntawm lawv thaj chaw ua haujlwm. Feem ntau cov kev tsim kho, kev khawb av, thiab cov tuam txhab roj yuav pom qhov yuav tsum tau xaum cov tshuab no los pab lawv txoj haujlwm. Lawv yuav ua lawv qhov zoo tshaj plaws kom tawm hauv dej ib zaug sai li sai tau kom cov dej tuaj yeem nqus tawm sai thiab yog li lawv tuaj yeem txo cov nqi tsev ntawm kev kho dej txawb.
Sab saum toj 10 Cov Lus Nug Txog Cov Qhov Rooj Nqa Cov Lus Teb
Xav tias qhov kev tuav tes ntawm lub qhov rooj kuj tseem tuaj yeem tshiab rau ntau tus neeg, peb muab kaum qhov lus nug thiab cov lus teb hais txog cov leeg ntawm lub qhov rooj rau koj kom tau pib.1. Koj puas tau pom dua cov neeg pleev kob xim&tsis npog lub teeb&cov leeg rooj?suab zoo li lawv tsis yaum dhau&sim maj los ntawm kev ua haujlwm lossis kev tsis tiav. tam sim no koj paub uas tsis mus ntiav lwm lub sijhawm koj xav tau neeg pleev kob.2. Kuv yuav ua li cas tshem cov nplaum chrome qhov rooj nqa?Lub tshav kub phom. Nws txo cov kua nplaum. BF hais tias nws tau ua nws ua ntej thiab nws ua haujlwm rau kev nqa cov ntawv nplaum thiab txiav txim siab tawm ntawm lub tsheb3. Yuav Ua Li Cas Thov Cov Ntawv Kua Tsheb Quav Quav | DoItYourself.comTsheb lub cev siv quav ciab tau thov nyob rau hauv txoj kev ib yam nkaus li ib txwm tsheb ciab. Cov cai zoo ib yam los yog lus pom muaj tseeb rau nws cov ntawv thov. Koj Yuav Tsum Tau Koj Lub Tsheb yuav tsum yog huv thiab paub meej ua ntej koj siv quav ciab. Ciab yog txheej tiv thaiv uas yuav tiv thaiv koj lub ci ntsa iab thiab koj lub tsheb pleev xim. Ntxuav thiab qhuav koj lub tsheb hauv qhov chaw muaj duab ntxoo. Tom qab ntawd txhuam nws nrog txhua lub tsheb kom zoo. Pib ntawm ob sab pem hauv ntej lossis tom qab lub tsheb ua haujlwm hauv ib qho kev taw qhia, ua thawj ib sab thiab tom qab ntawd ces lwm tus yog li koj yuav tau txais kev fajseeb tiav. Tej zaum koj yuav pom koj xav ua tsuas yog ib ntu ntawm ib lub sijhawm, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tias nws yog hnub kub raws li cov ciab tau tsim tau sai heev. Ua cov waxing hauv qhov ntxoov ntxoo. Muab lub thoob ntim zoo thiab hliv me ntsis kom huv. Thov nws mus rau lub cev ntawm lub tsheb hauv ncig. Cia siv quav ciab kom qhuav rau ib cov lus qhia ntim khoom thiab tom qab ntawd siv cov ntaub mos huv, muag muag kom nws los yog hluav taws xob tsis zoo. Them nyiaj tshwj xeeb rau thaj chaw ib puag ncig chrome, lub qhov rooj nqa, thiab xws li nws tuaj yeem nyuaj rau tshem cov ciab ntawm cov chaw no.4. UAE KEV PUB-19: Yuav ua li cas kom menyuam muaj kev nyab xeeb rau hauv pas dej thiab chaw ua si thaum muaj kev sib kisTab sis, thaum peb rhuav daim kab xev viav vias thiab cov plua plav tawm ntawm cov viav vias thiab cov dej ntws, nws yooj yim kom tsis nco qab tias tus kab mob no tsis tau ploj mus. Txawm hais tias cov nqi them rov qab yog siab thiab cov nkhaus tau ploj zuj zus mus, tseem muaj pua pua ntawm Covid-19 cov neeg mob tshiab tau qhia txhua hnub, thiab peb txhua tus tau paub txog qhov ua tau los ntawm nthwv dej thib ob. Yog li qhov kev nyab xeeb yog kev coj peb cov me nyuam rov qab mus rau hauv cov chaw ua si nraum zoov? Tab sis nws yog ib lo lus nug ntawm kev hnyav ntawm qhov kev pheej hmoo tiv thaiv qhov txiaj ntsig ntawm muaj peev xwm rov qab qee qhov kev xav ntawm qhov tsis xws li - rau peb cov menyuam yaus lub hlwb thiab lub cev kev noj qab haus huv, nrog rau kev lag luam. Yog tias koj tab tom noj koj cov me nyuam tawm mus rau cov chaw ua si lom zem hauv Dubai thaum muaj kev kis thoob ntiaj teb, ntawm no yog qee qhov uas koj tuaj yeem txo cov kev pheej hmoo: Cov chaw ua si thiab cov chaw ua si hauv dej nyab xeeb tuaj saib tam sim no? Tej zaum nws yuav kub sab nraud, tab sis nws muaj kev nyab xeeb dua - hais txog kev pheej hmoo tus kab mob - yuav tsum tau ua si sab nraud sab nraud dua li sab hauv, hais tias Dr Chiv Keeb 'Fiona Rennie. \"Chaw ua si nraum zoov thiab pas dej muaj qhov muaj txiaj ntsig ntawm huab cua ntshiab thiab qhov chaw ntau ntawm cov neeg dua li thaj chaw sab hauv. Yog tias koj yuav tawm hauv tsev dua nws muaj kev nyab xeeb dua rau sab nraud, qhov twg cov pa tawm tuaj yeem pab tiv thaiv tus kab mob, dua li hauv khw, qhov twg muaj cua tsawg dua. \" Dr Erin Bromage, tus kws tshaj lij ntawm Biology ntawm University of Massachusetts Dartmouth hais tias, \"Qhov chaw sab hauv huab cua, nrog huab cua tsis tshua hloov pauv lossis rov qab siv cov cua thiab cov neeg muaj ntau tus neeg.uas kawm txog kev siv tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ua lub luag haujlwm rau kev tiv thaiv los ntawm tus kab mob sib kis. Txawm li cas los xij, nyob rau hauv qhov kub ntawm UAE, nco ntsoov tias koj tab tom tshav ntuj ntse, kom tsis txhob khiav mus rau lwm qhov teeb meem kev noj qab haus huv: \"Huab cua sov yuav cuam tshuam rau koj tus menyuam lossis menyuam vim lawv lub cev tsis tuaj yeem hloov pauv mus rau qhov ntsuas kub raws li cov neeg laus , \"hais tias Dr Rennie. \"Cov menyuam mos thiab menyuam yaus tawm hws tsawg dua, txo lawv lub cev lub peev xwm txias kom txias, thiab lawv tsim kom muaj cua sov ntau dua thaum tawm dag zog ntau dua li cov neeg laus. Cov menyuam yaus thiab cov menyuam yaus muaj qhov tsis zoo ntawm lub cev qhuav dej thiab mob stroke dua li cov neeg laus thiab tsis tuaj yeem qhia koj tias lawv yog overheating. \" Cov kws tshawb fawb tau pom tias SARS-CoV-2 tseem tuaj yeem siv sijhawm ntev txog 72 teev rau ntawm cov yas thiab steel qhov chaw, thiab ntev txog 8 teev rau ntawm tooj liab thiab duab los qhia. Peb tseem paub tias nws muaj peev xwm rau ib tus neeg kis tus kab mob los ntawm kov cov khoom tsis huv, thiab tom qab ntawd kov lawv lub qhov ntswg, qhov ncauj lossis qhov muag (txawm hais tias qhov no tsis xav tias yog txoj kev tseem ceeb ntawm tus kabmob kis mus). Yog li cov yas thiab yas ua si thaj chaw kov, kov los ntawm ntau cov menyuam yaus txhais tes, yog qhov pheej hmoo. Txawm hais tias Dubai Municipality cov lus qhia thiab cov txheej txheem rau kev rov qhib dua yuav tsum tau ua si cov khoom ua si kom huv si tsawg kawg ib zaug ib teev, kev nquag ntxuav los yog ntxuav tu koj tus menyuam txhais tes yuav txo qhov kev pheej hmoo no ntxiv. \"Yog tias tsis muaj chav da dej nyob ze kom ntxuav me nyuam cov tes tas li, nqa tus tshuaj ntxuav tes nrog rau lub taub dej nrog kom yaug txhua qhov xuab zeb lossis av tawm ntawm txhais tes ua ntej siv cov tshuaj ntxuav tes (ntxuav tes huv si tsis zoo ntawm qhov qias neeg lossis ntxuav tes),\" Dr. Rennie. \"Yog tias noj mov tom chaw ua si nco ntsoov koj ntxuav koj tus menyuam txhais tes ua ntej thiab ntxuav lawv txhais tes tom qab tawm ntawm chaw ua si.\" Txawm li cas los xij,Cov chav da dej pej xeem tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev pheej hmoo loj hauv lawv tus kheej, Dr Bromage hais tias: \"Cov chav da dej muaj ntau qhov chaw muaj peev xwm kov tau, lub tes tuav qhov rooj, tus kais dej, lub qhov rooj muag khoom. Yog li [tus kab mob] hloov kev pheej hmoo hauv qhov chaw no tuaj yeem siab. paub seb ib tug neeg tso cov khoom kis mus rau hauv cov quav los yog muaj cov kab mob uas tsis huv, tab sis peb paub tias qhov tso quav tso zis tso pa tawm ua rau muaj ntau yam mob ua kom mob. Thaum koj yuav xav tias hnub ci nplaim taws no hauv UAE tuaj yeem ua raws li nws tus kheej tshuaj tua kab mob rau cov kab mob ntawm cov khoom ua si sab nraum zoov, tam sim no cov pov thawj tsis meej. Lub Koom Haum Ntiaj Teb Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv Ameslikas debunked lub luag haujlwm ntawm lub hnub ci hauv kev tua tus kabmob coronavirus yog ib qho ntawm nws cov tswvyim hais ua dabneeg rau WHO. Txawm li cas los xij, txoj kev tshawb fawb tau tshaj tawm hauv Phau Ntawv Xov Xwm ntawm Cov Neeg Muaj Kab Mob hauv 20 Lub Tsib Hlis 2020 xaus lus tias simulated lub hnub ci sai sai ua rau tsis muaj zog SARSCoV-2 ntawm thaj chaw. Txawm li cas los xij, cov kws tshawb nrhiav tau taw qhia tias huab cua huab cua hauv cheeb tsam thiab qhov loj me me tuaj yeem cuam tshuam txoj kev muaj sia nyob ntawm tus kab mob rau ntawm thaj chaw, yog li kev tshawb fawb ntxiv xav tau kom nkag siab txog qhov cuam tshuam ntawm tshav ntuj rau kis kab mob. Cov menyuam yaus puas xav nrug kev sib raug zoo? Kev sib cais deb heev yog qhov tseem ceeb ua rau tiv thaiv kev kis - thiab nws kuj nyuaj kawg nrog kev tswj hwm nrog menyuam. Dubai Municipality cov txheej txheem rau rov qhib chaw ua si sab nraum zoov yuav tsum kom cov neeg muaj kev sib nrug ob-mais deb nyob ib leeg - nrog rau tsis txhob siv cov viav vias uas nyob ib sab yog tias tsis muaj kev ncua deb ntawm lawv - thiab uas nyob hauv cov chaw ua si qhov twg nyuaj rau kev ua si yuav tsum muaj qhov siab tshaj qhov muaj peev xwm tsis pub tshaj. Cov qhov ncauj qhov ntswg phais thiab daim npog qhov ncauj yog ob qho tsim nyog,Txawm tias lub npog qhov ncauj qhov ntswg tuaj yeem pab ntes cov tee dej uas tsim thaum ib tug neeg txham lossis hnoos. Dr Fiona Rennie los ntawm Chiv Keeb Kho Mob hauv Dubai hais tias \"Lub ntsej muag ob xyoos yuav tsum hnav lub qhov ncauj sab nraud. \"Txawm li cas los xij yog tias koj tus menyuam tseem niaj hnub kov lawv lub ntsej muag lossis rov kho lub npog ntsej muag ces hnav lub npog ntsej muag tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev phom sij thiab ua rau muaj kev pheej hmoo kis tus kabmob. CDC hais tawm cov pov thawj qhia tias Covid-19 tsis tuaj yeem kis mus rau tib neeg los ntawm cov dej ua si feem ntau. Tsis tas li ntawd, \"kev ua haujlwm zoo ntawm cov chaw muaj dej thiab tua kab mob ntawm cov dej (nrog chlorine lossis bromine) yuav tsum ua rau tus kabmob tsis ua haujlwm uas ua rau Covid-19.\" Yog li, yog tias koj ntseeg tau tias cov pas dej da dej chlorine qib tau raug tswj xyuas kom zoo (raws li lawv yuav tsum ib Dubai Lub Nroog xav tau) tom qab ntawd nyob hauv pas dej da li lwm tus yuav tsum nyab xeeb. Yog tias koj coj koj tus menyuam mus rau tom qhov chaw ua si uas muaj lwm tus menyuam yaus nws tsis tuaj yeem tshem tawm txoj kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev kis tus kabmob coronavirus kiag li. Txawm li cas los xij, ntau tshaj peb lub hlis ntawm kev sib cais thiab koom tes hauv tsev yuav muaj kev pheej hmoo rau peb cov menyuam txoj kev mob hlwb. Dr Rennie hais tias \"Muaj ntau cov lus ceeb toom txog teeb meem kev coj tus cwj pwm, ntxhov siab thiab qhov tseem ceeb thiab pw tsaug zog kev pw tsaug zog hauv cov menyuam yaus thaum lub caij muab xauv cia uas qhia tau tias lawv muaj kev ntxhov siab.\" \"Tawm mus, huab cua ntshiab, nrog chav khiav thiab ua si yog qhov zoo rau menyuam yaus lub hlwb kev noj qab haus huv thiab rov qab qee theem ntawm qhov ib txwm muaj. Nws muaj kev nyab xeeb muab kev sib txawv ntawm zej zog yog pom thiab lub qhov ncauj qhov ntswg yog hnav thaum tsim nyog.\"
Sab saum toj 10 nqe lus nug Txog Led Lub Teeb Teb
Xav tias kev coj teeb pom kev zoo kuj tseem yuav tshiab rau ntau tus neeg, peb muab kaum nqe lus nug thiab cov lus teb hais txog kev coj teeb pom kev zoo rau koj los pib.1. Sab nraum zoov kab tshoob txais tos Teeb pom kev zoo Cov lus qhia rau hmo ntuj zooYog li, ib qho tseem ceeb uas koj tsis xav kom ploj yog lub teeb pom kev. Yog tias koj yuav ua kom koj lub teeb pom kev zoo sab nraum zoov, koj yuav tsum tau nqis peev hauv qee qhov teeb pom kev zoo tshaj plaws muaj. Thaum ua tiav zoo, lub teeb pom kev zoo tuaj yeem ua rau txhua yam zoo. Qhov tsim nyog ntawm cov teeb pom kev zoo tuaj yeem tso rau txhua yam ntawm tus nkauj nyab rooj noj mov mus rau rooj ua las voos, khoom qab zib kab tshoob thiab lwm yam. Nov yog qee qhov kev qhia los pab koj xaiv qhov tsim nyog, sab nraum zoov chaw txais tos teeb pom kev zoo. Pin Spot Pin chaw teeb pom kev zoo yog lub nqaj ntawm lub teeb uas tsim los ci ncaj qha rau ntawm ib yam dab tsi xws li lub tshoob ncuav mog qab zib, lub rooj ua khoom plig, lossis txawm tias qhib bar. Kev Ntxuav Xim Xim Qhov no yog pam ntawm lub teeb ua ke. Lawv tuaj yeem muab tso rau ntawm thaj chaw ib qho los tsim kev tawm tsam. Gobos Cov no yog cov stencils uas tuaj yeem muab tso rau ntawm lub teeb ntawm lub rooj tshoob sab nraud txais tos los tsim tus qauv lossis tsim cov lus hais. Qee tus siv cov no los sau cov sijhawm, cov npe ntawm tus nkauj nyab thiab nraug vauv, thiab lwm yam. LED LED teeb pom kev zoo yog nrov heev rau kev ua tshoob kos sab nraum zoov. Los nyob hauv txhua qhov xim, duab, thiab qhov loj me, cov teeb no muaj ntau dua kev ua haujlwm thiab lub zog. Txoj Hlab Teeb Ua raws li lub npe txhais, cov no yog cov hlua ntawm lub teeb ntawm txoj hlua zoo ib yam li cov ntawm Christmas ntoo. Tam sim no koj muaj kev nkag siab zoo ntawm hom nrov tshaj plaws ntawm sab nraum zoov tshoob kos teeb. Cov lus qhia ntxiv tom qab kom ua rau koj txais tos lit txhua hmo ntev yog xaiv cov teeb pom kev zoo uas haum rau cov qauv ntawm koj lub tshoob. Classic Yog tias koj tab tom yuav nrog lub rooj tshoob kho kom zoo nkauj,koj tuaj yeem xav mus nrog lub rooj teeb pom kev zoo xws li nyiaj tswm ciab nyiaj tswm ciab. Qhov no yuav muab tawm ntawm lub ntsej muag zoo nkauj. Cov tswm ciab yog ib lub tswv yim zoo rau kab tshoob kev kos. Nws teeb tsa suab nrov heev, tsis tshua muaj suab nrov. Rustic Xav Ntau ntawm barn-style tshoob kev txais tos? Vim li cas tsis mus nrog tej yam xws li lub teeb lag luam? Lawv yog cov ntau dua li qhov nruab nrab Christmas ntoo teeb nrog txhua lub teeb muab tawm ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo. Cov no yuav zoo rau hauv ob sab phlu chav ua yeeb yam lossis qhov rooj nkag mus rau koj lub tsev pheebsuab tshoob sab nraum zoov. Romantic Yog tias koj tab tom nrhiav kom pom lub tswv yim teeb pom kev zoo tiag tiag, cov teeb moos soos hais lus tagnrho. Tso cai rau koj tus qhua tso cov yeeb yuj teeb txawb rau saum ntuj thaum hmo ntuj uas koj saib thiab nco txog koj hnub tshwj xeeb. Edgy Yog tias koj mus rau me ntsis ntxiv ntawm qhov kev xav edgy, tom qab ntawd cov xim teeb yog koj tus phooj ywg zoo tshaj. Xaiv cov xim zoo nkauj thiab xim ntaj uas ua rau nqe lus. Koj yuav txawm mus rau ib qho me ntsis ntxiv niaj hnub thiab xaiv cov qauv teeb lossis lub teeb uas hloov xim rau cov pop ntxiv. Yuav ua li cas hom teeb pom kev zoo koj yuav muaj nyob rau ntawm koj sab nraum zoov tshoob txais tos? Txhua tus neeg xav kom tau txais nyob rau pem teb las voos thiab seev cev hmo ntuj. Yog tias koj tab tom npaj sab nraum zoov tshoob txais tos, teeb pom kev zoo yog txhua yam. Nws tuaj yeem nqa ib lub tsev pheebsuab sab nraud los ntawm theem pib thiab drab mus rau zes thiab xav tsis thoob hauv vib nas this. Nco ntsoov tias koj xaiv lub teeb pom kev zoo uas yuav kos kom pom tseeb ntawm cov lus qhia ntxaws ntawm koj lub tshoob thiab tseem ua rau tog kev lom zem nyob hmo ntuj.2. Nrog tag nrho cov lus hais txog kev txwv qhov muag tsis sib tw, puas muaj lwm txoj hauv kev uas tsis muaj qhov muag teeb rau fluorescent teeb pom kev zoo?Cov teeb roj teeb hluav taws xob tawm ntawm UV hluav taws xob, yog li nws tsis zoo rau koj lub qhov muag ib qho. UV-thaiv cov tes tsho, npog thiab vaj huam sib luag yog muaj rau lub teeb roj fluorescent. Tshwj tsis yog tias lawv yog tus qauv, cov hlab cua ntev, lub qhov muag roj fluorescent feem ntau tau kib; Kuv xav tias lawv rhiab ntau dua rau cov xim av outs thiab lub hwj huam spikes. Lawv tuaj yeem mess koj lub TV txais tos thiab yeej xov tooj cua AM. LED teeb pom kev zoo tuaj yeem nyab xeeb, nyob ntawm cov khw. Nws yog qhov zoo tshaj tus nqi tshaj li fluorescent ... txawm li cas los xij, hauv kuv kev paub, tsis yog tus qauv hluav taws xob tsis dhau lossis LED teeb kom ntev li ntev li lub teeb pom kev zoo (vim muaj teeb meem kev tsim khoom), txawm tias lawv tau cog lus tias yuav siv sijhawm ntev dua. Cov taws LED tau kim heev nyob rau lub sijhawm tam sim no, thiab tuaj yeem muaj teeb meem nrog lawv tshaj tawm lub teeb pom kev ntau dhau, qee qhov tuaj yeem ua kev puas tsuaj rau koj lub qhov muag, tab sis tsis hais qhov twg, lub teeb ci tuaj yeem hnyav. Lwm qhov teeb meem nrog LED teeb pom kev yog tau txais lub teeb dawb. Nws yog ib qho nyuaj rau muab cov xim thiab ua rau qhov sib zog xwb tsuas yog txoj cai kom tau txais xim zoo nkauj, dawb xim. Cov LEDS dawb yuav zoo li ua rau xiav tsaus. Sib nrug ntawm ob qho no, ob qho koj tau siv hluav taws xob ntau, lossis koj tau lumens lumens (siv lub teeb). Tsis tas li, nrog lwm txoj hauv kev, nws yog qhov nyuaj rau nyeem ntawv lossis lub teeb dawb thiab koj tuaj yeem ntsib teeb meem nrog lawv cov cua sov.
Tsis muaj ntaub ntawv
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Tsis muaj ntaub ntawv
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