R3 Publishes a New Post-quantum Signature Algorithm Tailored to Blockchains

You might have noticed a few external tweets and reddit posts mentioning that the Corda team has recently announced a new digital signature scheme that unlike RSA and ECDSA, it will remain secure even against a powerful quantum computer. Indeed, our protocol, BPQS, has been published and presented to the IEEE Blockchain 2018 conference which was held in Halifax, Canada a week ago. You can find a copy of the paper in this IACR link.

Note that this post is as less technical as possible and it mainly focuses on: a) presenting why quantum computers pose a threat to classical cryptographyb) showing why we need to explore quantum resistant algorithms before its too latec) highlighting the false impression that a hashed key policy is immune against quantum attacksd) explaining why BPQS is a great candidate protocol for post-quantum secure blockchains* Please read and study the BPQS paper if you want to dive into the cryptographic details on how it actually works and feel free to contact any of the authors for clarifications and potential research collaboration opportunities.It is also true that this work gained the attention of many researchers, blockchain engineers, industry leaders and HSM (hardware wallet) vendors from all over the world and I got really happy, when after our presentation, and especially the following day, I received more than 50 questions for which I had to draw multiple diagrams and modified Merkle-trees on notebooks and whiteboards in order to explain how BPQS works to excited academics and software developers. Well, this is just the beginning of a new collaboration era for R3 with strong connections to academia and probably joint industry research on hot cryptographic topics.

So, how it all begun and what is the secret recipe that makes the BPQS paper unique? To make it clear, its not the first scheme that provides post-quantum guarantees, we didnt even invent a new cryptographic hardness assumption. So whats the trick?

I will just quote three of the reviewers comments:the idea is fresh and interesting in particular with respect to blockchain applications, amazingly, the blockchain structure itself can be used to minimise signature size and worth referencing when consider how to improve the blockchain to be quantum resistant.Quantum ComputersBefore we explain the superiority of BPQS and why it was likely to be invented by a blockchain company, like R3, lets first take a quick look at current state of the art. I am also highlighting that when we hear the word post-quantum it usually implies an algorithm that still runs on conventional CPUs, however it is carefully designed in a way that we dont know of any quantum algorithm that can break it (yet).

Well, we should better say quantum-resistant, but literature usually refers to it as post-quantum, so we stick to it.The threat quantum computers pose to classical cryptography has increased the interest in post-quantum research; this is obvious from the increased number of articles dealing with either quantum-based or quantum-resistant solutions. More specifically, due to Shors algorithm, a quantum computer could easily factor a big integer in polynomial time, thus effectively break RSA in seconds.

Implementations of Shors algorithm can also solve discrete logarithms and render todays digital signatures, such as DSA, ECDSA and EdDSA, useless.10 years ago there was little evidence of practical quantum computers. But the race has already begun.

In 2018, Google unveiled Bristlecone, a new quantum computing chip with 72 qubits, 22 more than the 50-qubit processor announced by IBM in 2017. We should also mention D-Wave, a company that recently announced a 2000-qubit processor optimised for quantum annealing metaheuristics; however, there are reports that D-Waves quantum speedup analysis is debatable. To summarise, even though more research and experiments are required to allow for stable quantum chips with low error and noise rates, it is a fact that quantum technology is progressing.

The reality is we have yet to build a computer with the thousands of stable logical qubits required to make classical public key cryptography obsolete. However, some optimistic predictions estimate that a large quantum computer capable of breaking asymmetric cryptography might be available in the next 10 to 20 years. Im personally more conservative and it might take a bit more than that, but I would highlight that research is driven by market requirements for more time-efficient computing and the ability to solve problems that were previously considered impracticable and human intelligence usually surprises us.

If the quantum-apocalypse ever happens, the security impact of breaking public key cryptography would be tremendous, as almost everything from HTTPS, VPN and PKI in general, is basing their authentication, key exchange and digital signatures on classical cryptography. Blockchains would be hit equally hard, and would perhaps be one of the most affected sectors due to direct and untraceable economic incentives.So, why R3 is exploring post-quantum?

Corda is probably the most cryptographically agile blockchain/DLT and since early 2017, users have the option to choose between multiple signing key-types including RSA, ECDSA, EdDSA and SPHINCS. Note that EdDSA is currently the default scheme in Corda, mainly due to its efficiency and security against side-channel attacks. You might not be familiar with the last scheme though, SPHINCS, which is a quantum resistant algorithm, whose construction and security are completely based on hash functions and nothing else; no elliptic curves, no prime numbers, no special maths.

Many of you might not know, but Corda is one of the first blockchains where obsessed with security users can sign transactions with post-quantum secure keys. Well, this would make sense especially for long-term contracts, like mortgages and pension schemes. In short, post-quantum algorithms are usually a candidate option in cases where assets should remain locked or inactive for dozens of years.

But, why not use SPHINCS for every transaction? Because there are two major caveats that make it impractical for many blockchain applications: a) its relatively slow signing speed and b) its 41KB signature output. Its true there have been various attempts in the literature to optimise SPHINCS and we know how to produce shorter signatures by using stateful hash-based solutions, such as XMSS and its variants.

We went a step further so as to build an efficient post-quantum scheme tailored to blockchains that we could use in Corda and also influence HSM vendors to eventually support post-quantum solutions for demanding customers and applications.BPQS is actually a modified XMSS protocol, best suited to two types of application requirements:a) when signing keys are used once or just a few times (i. e.

, 3 times). The most common example is one-time addresses, which is the recommended approach in public blockchainsand b) when there is an underlying immutable graph structure which can serve the role of a global cache, independently on how many times a key is reused. For instance, in permissioned blockchains some entities are known to sign with the same legal-identity key again and again, i.

e., notaries or oracles.Ah, forgot to mention that the crypto agility feature is one of the differentiation factors between Corda and other distributed ledgers.

For some reason we dont advertise it a lot, but one can practically build a new post-quantum token or secure critical contracts requiring multiple signature key-types. The latter is possible via the CompositeKey feature in Corda, where you can apply a belts and braces approach and simultaneously sign a transaction with multiple keys, such as ECDSA, RSA and BPQS, so that all of these algorithms should break for your assets to be stolen. A similar combined method was recently explored by Google in their CECPQ1 post-quantum cipher suite TLS experiments.

The misconception: hashed keys to the rescue for existing blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.Most blockchains mitigate the quantum threat by using addresses that are generated from cryptographic hashes of the public keys. This additional layerof security means that a public key only gets exposed to the ledger after the first transaction that it participates in occurs (i.

e. , when a Bitcoin is spent). Until this point, only the hashed recipient key (the address) is exposed and consequently attacks such as Shors algorithm are not applicable at this stage.

However, the following attack vectors are still applicable, even when hashed keys are utilised:In short, users tend to reuse their keys on purpose, by mistake or some times because they dont have other options. The most interesting example is forked blockchains, where the same key holds assets in two or more chains and at the time you spend on one of them, the public key gets exposed. In-flight transactions and transaction mixing also reveal the public keys for a few moments, and this time-window will be more than enough to derive the private key when a proper quantum computer gets available.

Hash-Based Signature schemesBPQS is a hash-based signature and as such, it uses one-time signature (OTS) schemes as a fundamental building block. Unlike most other signature schemes, OTS requires only a secure cryptographic hash function and no other hardness assumption (about a number-theoretic problem) and is not known to be vulnerable to Shors algorithm. Secure here refers to either hash collision resistance or mere second pre-image resistance, depending on the specific one-time signature used.

Common examples of one-time signature schemes are the seminal one by Lamport, the Winternitz scheme and its recent variant W-OTS. In one-time signatures, the private key consists of randomly generated values and the public key is a function of the private key, involving the underlying hash function. The picture below depicts a very basic voting example where I want to sign one bit of information using Lamports algorithm.

Briefly,a) I initially generate two random values and I use them as my private key (in this picture 2cf24dba5fb0 and ab321687ddf1, respectively).b) Then, I hash both values independently and the resulted outputs form my public key (f3287632cd32 and 90fffe215668). c) I then publish my two public key parts and we all agree that the left part will correspond to bitValue=0 (i.

e., if my vote is NO), while the one on the right corresponds to bitValue=1 (i.e.

, if my vote is YES).d) Now, when I actually submit my vote, I will reveal one of the two private keys depending on my choice. As I am the only person who knows these two values, if I publish ab321687ddf1, then every verifier can check that it corresponds to my right public key part, so they can be convinced I voted YES.

If we use the same logic for extra bits of information, we will eventually be able to sign any message. There is an excellent post that explains with easy to follow diagrams how the major hash-based signature schemes work, thus, if you want to learn more, visit this link. For the time being, Im not getting into the low-level cryptographic details.

But, I need to mention that OTS, as its name states, are inadequate on their own in practice, since each one-time private key can only be used to securely sign a single message. Hm weve already mentioned we might need to reuse a key and sign a second message. Now what?

Blockchained Post-Quantum SignaturesUnfortunately, each time we reuse an OTS key, the advertised bits of security are reduced to half (on average). Surprisingly, there are existing blockchains that assume one-time is enough, which is obviously wrong. IOTA is such an example, and it has been reported that some wallets do not allow you to sign for a second time with the same key.

The latter results to asset freezing if for instance the first transaction never goes through. Im wondering what is the plan in case of a fork, in which case it will be inevitable that one needs to sign at least two times.Although there are extensions of the simple OTS schemes to allow for multiple times signing, such as SPHINCS, they are not that fast and succinct, while in some cases key generation is very expensive.

However, in blockchains, most of the times we need to sign once and in rare cases we need to reuse a key. But because these are exceptional cases, we realised we dont really need the complexity of schemes like SPHINCS and XMSS, but a fallback key, which will be activated only when we need to sign again.BPQS is actually a chain/path of fallback keys.

This way, we always need 2 OTS keys and nothing more. One of them is used to sign the actual message (transaction). The other is the fallback key that will sign a new set of 2 OTS keys and so onAnd what if for any reason I need to sign thousands of times?

Here is the magic behind BPQS, if you signed in the past and it has been recorded in the blockchain, just provide a link to the block that contains your authentication path. Due to above trick, each signature remains very short as previous paths are delegated to existing blocks (which are already verified so no extra computations). Permissioned blockchains, like Corda, can benefit a lot from the BPQS approach, because notaries and oracles need to sign multiple times with their legal identity keys.

If post-quantum security is a requirement, BPQS should definitely be considered. We will keep you updated for any news related to BPQS and I am pretty sure you will hear again from our research team in the next few months, as the hype of BPQS and its potential extensions for use in IoT and Zero Knowledge Proofs seem very very very promising RELATED QUESTION What is your honest opinion about the YouTuber Morgz? He is worthless scum that is always yelling, says you could win an Iphone but never declares a winner, and constantly steals from other Youtubers, overly so by using very similar thumbnails and word for word titles.

He mostly copies MrBeast though. MrBeast posts a video then a month or two later he posts the same video. He does money challenges with his family showing stacks of money saying its whatever amount he thinks is good, but always shows the money from the side so you don't know whether it's all hundreds but it isn't even the amount he says seeing how he says dollars but he lives in the UK.

So if he says $10,000 it's more like 7,989 British pound or if he says $20,000 it's more like 15,979 British pounds and that's not including the exchange rate to get it to British pounds. He uses click bait to get kids to watch his videos making them think they might see some nudity or actual drama by adding Gone Wrong. He even used this: Making people think his mom had sex with him, which was a lie then changed the title later after it got enough views.

He does bullshit challenges such as: 24 hours in an inflatable park - if you watch this one at one point Martin gets caught by security and escorted out and then at 21:32 you can see Martin And Security Guard just standing 20 feet away looking right at him, which shows that the place was open and not closed like they stated. Constantly saying that its 5 am which is bullshit. Lying about finding $100,000 in an abandoned chest.

Always constantly stealing others content. *Yes I know Killem uses some of MrBeast content but he at least gives props to him, which Morgz doesnt do. The biggest issue I have with him is that all his videos are heavily scripted, which you can tell by his horrible acting and product placement of his shit merchandise.

You cant offer up a cash prize if the whole thing is scripted, there is no stakes of whether he will lose money. And I highly believe any of his videos that say he will buy everything thats drawn, told to buy, what you spell I buy, or I bought everything in the mall is all returned. You get a good look at his house frequently but never see anything he as bought in past videos.

And the bit that makes him worse scum than Jabba the Hutt is his constant putting his crap merchandise into every video. Such as: A pause challenge where he paused his mom while she was ironing a shirt, she was freaking out like it was her cloths and then laughs cause its his merchandise. If that were real she would have been laughing the very second he paused her.

Staying in his house without anyone noticing challenge he hides in the closet just so his mom can show off a hoodie during the challenge. Im going to leave it there since if I keep going on about him Ill become more insane. Edit: Fuck it time to go insane, let's bring up his second channel that's worst than the first, Morgz Mum.

Let us start with her response videos to other YouTubers, which if I may point out is still horrible acting with a script just because someone talked shit on her, don't get me wrong a response is called for when someone else calls you out. But it's funny how she said morgz should box a few of them and he says no he ain't a fighter yet he says he'll fight PewDiePie. I don't watch PewDiePie a lot but even I know morgz would get knocked the fuck out.

Fuck if he comes to Missouri and I'll do it, little bitch needs a beating. His and her bullshit 10 second subscribe challenges need to stop, they are the only ones benefitting from it, although I'm sure other channels are doing it too. Sorry off topic there, Morgz mum channel is exactly the same.

Same videos, constant yelling and loud whispering, clickbaiting, cash challenges with no actual stakes, horrible acting and scripts, overly forced merchandise placement, and worst of all too many midrolls on most to all of her videos. Still unoriginal horseshit just to make money by manipulating kids. They're a fucked up family.

If you want original real content, not bullshit acting, Bullshit cash challenges with actual stakes go check out MrBeast. (Since that's who he steals from the most.)

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Related Questions of Gift Box
Here are top 10 questions about gift box asked by people online.1. How do you feel when you open a big gift box?I feel like I am opening the box for more than hour. It seems like you take forever!2. Wedding invitation etiquette regarding "no gift box" request?Where are you getting married? I ask because I am half Greek and in our tradition people pin money to your dress (or to ribbons on your dress). One of my cousins ended up with 10,000! I think it would be tricky to ask overtly for money but if you worded something carefully, and asked a close relative to start the money pinning perhaps you could 'adopt' this tradition? How about something like?: We are so grateful that you will be joining us on our special day and hope you understand that because we will be leaving the country soon afterwards we cannot carry wedding gifts. However!... we thought it would be fun to adopt the Greek tradition of pinning money on the Bride! Obviously, when you have been kind enough to travel to be with us we do not expect you to do this but as we cannot transport presents we feel it is a fun alternative for anyone who wanted to give us a gift. I am sure you could word it better than I have, but something along those lines. The great thing about this is that people get competitive! Enjoy!3. American Eagle outfitters gift box/wrapping?Yes you absolutely can! Just bring in your reciept, or even better yet, bring the item in too and they will wrap it all up again for you! That is if the particular store has gift boxes in stock and around this time of year, there is a greater chance they will not have any. Maybe call the store first and ask if they dos o you don;t waste a trip to the mall! Good Luck!4. I'm making a gift box for my best friend, help?her favorite movie? candy,beef jerky!:) stickers! nails polish(her fav color) tickets toa movie u can see togeth cd of her fav singer, poster a homemade bookmark:) her fav book hope this helps!5. Where to find a large gift box?Most of the card shops do large flat pack boxes6. i need a big gift box a human can pop out of ( kind of like a cake) denver area?go to the appliance or furniture store and get a big box. cover it with pretty paper7. What is the worst chocolate gift box you ever received?Do not recall the name brand, but some of the pieces of "fudge" were excrement, nuts included........way too chewy for my taste8. How do I wrap a gift in a box?Like any other present smarty!9. A birthday gift box ideas for my 19 year old brother?my suggestions are: - gift certificates for a spa; P500-P1000) - if he likes coffee, how about a mug from starbucks and a pouch of coffee to go with it; (P300-P1300); - his fav cds or a compilations ofhis fav music (original P250-P400/ burned P50-P70); - a 'pogi points' pouch or basket which includes blotting paper for face/ hand sanitizer/ hair wax, gel/ cologne (those are from BENCH are affordable and cute not to mention good smelling; - a bead necklace from beadworks (P50-P350); have fun filling the box!!10. Plain Black Large Gift Box?the post office. office max. target. walmart. big lots.11. What should I put in a themed gift box for my boyfriend?I would not worry too much about the theme, just fill it with stuff that he will love. Here's some suggestions =) -Make a homemade card -Homemade cookie or muffins -New earphones or an itunes gift card -snowboarding gloves -X-box game or points -Coupons (good for one massage etc) -Love jar (make 100 slips of paper or paper hearts and write out reasons why you love him cute quotes, or lyrics and put them in a decorated jar) -message in a bottle (love letter) -Sunglasses -Favourite candy or chocolate -cologne or body wash -framed photo of you guys -Photo calendar (use an online photo lab or google a template and make your own...add in important dates) -scrapbook -make a little book with the story of how you guys met -a watch -new T-shirt -snowboarding magazine -Movie tickets -Tickets to an upcoming concert -Wine -Mixed CD -Sports drinks -Buy some pillowcases and decorate them with fabric markers (put the best boyfriend in the whole world sleeps here, goodnight I love you etc) If you buy a roll of plain brown paper you can decorate it with markers for the wrapping. You could write lyrics all over it that remind you of him or draw cute pictures. Good Luck!
Kev Raug Rho Tawm Sensor Tam Sim No.
Thawj kauj ruam yog nyeem los ntawm tus neeg siv phau ntawv qhia, thiab paub tseeb tias nws tsis nyob hauv \"kev kuaj\" hom. Yog tias tom qab nyeem phau ntawv nws tseem tsis ua haujlwm, Kuv yuav pauv nws rau chav sib txawv.Yog chav tshiab tsis ua haujlwm, kuv yuav sim ua hom txawv / qauv, lossis tsis nco qab txog kev siv lub cev ua haujlwm.Kuv tau sim los txhim kho lub Lutron 2 AMP kev nyob ua haujlwm lub lis xaus no, hloov qhov kev hloov pauv ib leeg-ncej yooj yooj yim.Txoj kev txhim kho zoo li tsis yooj yim txaus. Txawm li cas los xij, thaum lub sijhawm los ntsuas nws, nws nthuav tawm cov tsos mob funny. Kwv yees li 9 ntawm 10 zaug nws pom cov lus tsa suab thiab sim qhib lub teeb, lub teeb yuav nyob rau kev sib cais ntawm ib pliag, thiab tom qab ntawd tawm mus. Qee zaus, lub teeb yuav tig thiab nyob twj ywm, ua haujlwm ib txwm muaj.Kuv xav tias qhov hloov yuav xav tau qhov tsawg kawg nkaus ntawm qhov tsis txaus - Kuv tau siv 4 LED qhov muag teev, tab sis tom qab hloov mus rau 4 qhov muag tsis pom, qhov teeb meem tseem nyob.Qhov ntsuas no yuav tsum muaj lub xov hluav taws xob hauv av, uas yog siv los ua lub zog ntawm kev taws teeb hluav taws xob. Kuv paub tseeb tias kev ua haujlwm grounding. Nws puas tau. Qhov tseeb, lub sensor yuav tsis txawm ua haujlwm tsis muaj cov xov txuas hauv av.Kuv mam li sim ntsuas tus tes hloov qhov chaw nyob rau qhov chaw sib txawv, tseem hloov tus ncej ib leeg hloov. Kev teeb tsa ntawm cov xov hlau tau zoo ib yam rau qhov chaw dhau los. Lub sijhawm no, cov taws teeb yuav tsis tig rau txhua qhov.Kuv xav tias kuv yuav tsum tau tawg lub sensor, tab sis kuv tau sim nws dua ntawm thawj qhov chaw kom paub meej. Nws tsis tawg (tsawg kawg tsis ua kom tiav), thiab tseem ua rau pom \"tam sim ntawd tom qab tig teeb rau\" qhov teeb meem ntawm thawj qhov chaw.Kuv txhav. Puas yog nws xav tias kuv tau txais chav haujlwm tsis zoo? Los yog puas yog cov teeb meem tsis zoo ntawm cov av (\"tsis muaj zog hauv av\")? Cov lus qhia / cov lus pom zoo raug qhuas!TSUM LUS TEB:Kuv tau sim los txhim kho lub Lutron 2 AMP kev nyob ua haujlwm lub lis xaus no, hloov qhov kev hloov pauv ib leeg-ncej yooj yooj yim.Txoj kev txhim kho zoo li tsis yooj yim txaus. Txawm li cas los xij, thaum lub sijhawm los ntsuas nws, nws nthuav tawm cov tsos mob funny. Kwv yees li 9 ntawm 10 zaug nws pom cov lus tsa suab thiab sim qhib lub teeb, lub teeb yuav nyob rau kev sib cais ntawm ib pliag, thiab tom qab ntawd tawm mus. Qee zaus, lub teeb yuav tig thiab nyob twj ywm, ua haujlwm ib txwm muaj.Kuv xav tias qhov hloov yuav xav tau qhov tsawg kawg nkaus ntawm qhov tsis txaus - Kuv tau siv 4 LED qhov muag teev, tab sis tom qab hloov mus rau 4 qhov muag tsis pom, qhov teeb meem tseem nyob.Qhov ntsuas no yuav tsum muaj lub xov hluav taws xob hauv av, uas yog siv los ua lub zog ntawm kev taws teeb hluav taws xob. Kuv paub tseeb tias kev ua haujlwm grounding. Nws puas tau. Qhov tseeb, lub sensor yuav tsis txawm ua haujlwm tsis muaj cov xov txuas hauv av.Kuv mam li sim ntsuas tus tes hloov qhov chaw nyob rau qhov chaw sib txawv, tseem hloov tus ncej ib leeg hloov. Kev teeb tsa ntawm cov xov hlau tau zoo ib yam rau qhov chaw dhau los. Lub sijhawm no, cov taws teeb yuav tsis tig rau txhua qhov.Kuv xav tias kuv yuav tsum tau tawg lub sensor, tab sis kuv tau sim nws dua ntawm thawj qhov chaw kom paub meej. Nws tsis tawg (tsawg kawg tsis ua kom tiav), thiab tseem ua rau pom \"tam sim ntawd tom qab tig teeb rau\" qhov teeb meem ntawm thawj qhov chaw.Kuv txhav. Puas yog nws xav tias kuv tau txais chav haujlwm tsis zoo? Los yog puas yog cov teeb meem tsis zoo ntawm cov av (\"tsis muaj zog hauv av\")? Cov lus qhia / cov lus pom zoo raug qhuas!
Lub Chaw Kho Dej Txawb Siv Tau Zoo Siv Tom Qab Dej Nyab thiab Kev Puas Tsuaj
Lub chaw kho dej txawb tau tuaj yeem txuas rau ntawm lub thawb thiab nws tuaj yeem xaub rau cov haujlwm nyob hauv. Chav tsev feem ntau nruab nrog thim rov qab osmosis kev kho mob raws li lub cev lim dej thiab lwm cov kauj ruam kom lim thiab dej huv.Nrog kev sib xyaw ntawm cov thim rov qab osmosis thiab muag khoom lub zog, dej tuaj yeem lim tawm cov dej thiab muab cov dej qee qhov sib npaug. Raws li koj paub, cov dej nyuaj muaj magnesium thiab calcium, thaum koj ntxiv cov tawv nqaij nws tuaj yeem tiv thaiv lub zog ntawm magnesium thiab calcium.Txo cov tshuaj fluoride hauv dejLawv tseem yuav txo cov tshuaj chlorides thiab cov dej sulfur hauv dej, nrog rau, tshem tawm arsenic, fluoride, nitrates, thiab lwm yam ions tuaj yeem ua rau hnyav hlau. Nws yuav cia koj ntxuav qhov dej kom rov qab siv nws. Lawv raug siv thaum nws los txog rau qhov chaw ua roj av brine thiab kawb pob zeb (los yog dej rov qab los ntawm hauv thaj tsam ntawm lub mines). Nws suav hais tias yog kev lag luam pov tseg kev kho, vim nws ntxuav cov dej huv uas pom thiab tom qab ntawd nws cais cov khib nyiab.Cov kab ke no yog txhawm rau ntxuav cov dej hauv av los yog dej nag uas muaj nyob hauv cov chaw tsim kho. Nws yuav ua haujlwm zoo thaum huab cua muaj paug nrog qee hom micro-hais. Kev kho dej txawb ntawm tes yuav tso cov tshuaj dej haus rau hauv nws cov dej uas yog pumped.Feem ntau ntawm cov tshuab no tuaj yeem ntim tau 12,500 nkas loos dej. Nws yuav ua rau cov khoom tawg thiab cov pov thawj kom tsis tu ncua thiab tseem niaj hnub ua cov dej kom nws tuaj yeem tshem tawm ntawm cov khoom paug ntau li ntau tau. Qhov kev nqus thiab tso dej tawm yog rau caum nkas loos dej nyob rau ib feeb, yog li nws pheej haus dej ntau ntxiv rau hauv thiab tso cov dej ntshiab.Txo teeb meem nrog dej hausQhov laj thawj yog vim li cas ntau lub tuam txhab yuav xev cov tshuab no yog li lawv tuaj yeem ua kom tshem tawm cov dej uas thaiv lossis txwv tsis pub lawv ua haujlwm thiab cia cov dej ua kom huv thiab nqus mus rau hauv tus txiv neej qhov. Nov yog ib txoj hauv kev uas cov tuam txhab tsim kho thiab mining tuaj yeem ua lub luag haujlwm tau zoo. Lawv ntxuav cov dej ua ntej lawv muab pov tseg lawv thiaj li tsis ua rau ib tus neeg raug mob thaum lawv muab dej pov tseg.Thaum lub tuam txhab xauj ib lub tshuab no, lawv yuav siv nyiaj li ntawm $ 900- $ 1200 nyob rau ib hnub los tso cov dej tawm ntawm lawv thaj chaw ua haujlwm. Feem ntau cov kev tsim kho, kev khawb av, thiab cov tuam txhab roj yuav pom qhov yuav tsum tau xaum cov tshuab no los pab lawv txoj haujlwm. Lawv yuav ua lawv qhov zoo tshaj plaws kom tawm hauv dej ib zaug sai li sai tau kom cov dej tuaj yeem nqus tawm sai thiab yog li lawv tuaj yeem txo cov nqi tsev ntawm kev kho dej txawb.
How to Make Amazing Car Vending Machine From Cardboard
Cardboard is one of those materials that can be used in different ways. This material is quite flexible which is why it is easy to recycle. Many people make a range of items from this material.If you are one of those people who want to make lovely toys for their kids, then you can do it! All you need is DIY guts and a lot of cardboard material. No doubt that for this project, you have to get a lot of cardboard. Worried about where to find cardboard boxes? Well, these boxes are readily available at online box companies.At the moment, we are going to tell you the simple method of making an Amazing Car Vending Machine from Cardboard. Have a look:1. First of all, you have to mark lines on a plain cardboard sheet and then cut it with a sharp blade.2. Take another cardboard sheet of the same size and then apply hot glue on it with the hot glue gun.3. After that, you have to fix this sheet onto another sheet to make a side.4. Take two more cardboard sheets to make the 2nd and 3rd side of the vending machine. Apply a small amount of hot glue on the base of these sheets to fix them.5. Now you have to get a small piece of cardboard, and the fix it in the middle of one side with the help of hot glue.6. Take three more cardboard pieces and join them in such a way that it makes a slide for the cars.7. You have to fix this sliding piece onto the middle piece of the cardboard.8. To give support to the slide you have to put a big piece of cardboard under it.9. Apply glue on a small rectangular piece and then fix it down to one side10. Pass a big toothpick from the supporting cardboard and this small piece. In this way, both of these will not move at all.11. Take three ice cream sticks and then cut one and fix its pieces on the other two to join them.12. Now you have to get five square pieces of cardboard of the same length. You have to join them one after the other to make a small square shaped box.13. Glue the ice cream sticks beneath this box.14. Now fix this piece under the slide pieces of cardboard. The ice cream sticks will be making the box movable so that the cars could easily slide.15. Take paper pieces and roll than on a thin wooden stick one after the other. Now take two pieces of ice cream sticks and glue it on these wooden sticks.16. It is the time to make the entire system of the vending machine. You have to do some engineering stuff to make the system perfectly.17. Make use of wires and then fix them onto the battery. Make sure you have used a small battery. 18. Take an aluminum foil and use it in the system so that the wires don't move at all. You have to do the systematic steps carefully.19. When your system is ready, then you have to fix it in your vending set of cardboard.20. Join the ice cream sticks box with the thread to the roller. Fix the roller with glue onto the base of the box.22.Complete the remaining vending machine with cardboard according to your desire. You can do the finishing on your own in any style.21. Now you have to close the front side so that the internal systems hide completely·RELATED QUESTIONI didn't get Google Glass Explorer Edition. Is trying to learn Glass dev without the hardware a futile effort?No, you can still learn the fundamentals of Glass development without the hardware.There are three main approaches for accomplishing this:1) Visit the Mirror API documentation, get into the playground, and start hashing up some code. Download the PHP, Java, and Python library, whichever you're most comfortable with. Familiarize yourself with the jargon and converntions (timeline, bundles, menus, etc). Read the support documentation (second link below) to see how the Glass hardware actually functions. Build some apps to this specification. Soon enough, you will find a friend with hardware to t
Sab saum toj 10 Cov Lus Nug Txog Cov Qhov Rooj Nqa Cov Lus Teb
Xav tias qhov kev tuav tes ntawm lub qhov rooj kuj tseem tuaj yeem tshiab rau ntau tus neeg, peb muab kaum qhov lus nug thiab cov lus teb hais txog cov leeg ntawm lub qhov rooj rau koj kom tau pib.1. Koj puas tau pom dua cov neeg pleev kob xim&tsis npog lub teeb&cov leeg rooj?suab zoo li lawv tsis yaum dhau&sim maj los ntawm kev ua haujlwm lossis kev tsis tiav. tam sim no koj paub uas tsis mus ntiav lwm lub sijhawm koj xav tau neeg pleev kob.2. Kuv yuav ua li cas tshem cov nplaum chrome qhov rooj nqa?Lub tshav kub phom. Nws txo cov kua nplaum. BF hais tias nws tau ua nws ua ntej thiab nws ua haujlwm rau kev nqa cov ntawv nplaum thiab txiav txim siab tawm ntawm lub tsheb3. Yuav Ua Li Cas Thov Cov Ntawv Kua Tsheb Quav Quav | DoItYourself.comTsheb lub cev siv quav ciab tau thov nyob rau hauv txoj kev ib yam nkaus li ib txwm tsheb ciab. Cov cai zoo ib yam los yog lus pom muaj tseeb rau nws cov ntawv thov. Koj Yuav Tsum Tau Koj Lub Tsheb yuav tsum yog huv thiab paub meej ua ntej koj siv quav ciab. Ciab yog txheej tiv thaiv uas yuav tiv thaiv koj lub ci ntsa iab thiab koj lub tsheb pleev xim. Ntxuav thiab qhuav koj lub tsheb hauv qhov chaw muaj duab ntxoo. Tom qab ntawd txhuam nws nrog txhua lub tsheb kom zoo. Pib ntawm ob sab pem hauv ntej lossis tom qab lub tsheb ua haujlwm hauv ib qho kev taw qhia, ua thawj ib sab thiab tom qab ntawd ces lwm tus yog li koj yuav tau txais kev fajseeb tiav. Tej zaum koj yuav pom koj xav ua tsuas yog ib ntu ntawm ib lub sijhawm, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tias nws yog hnub kub raws li cov ciab tau tsim tau sai heev. Ua cov waxing hauv qhov ntxoov ntxoo. Muab lub thoob ntim zoo thiab hliv me ntsis kom huv. Thov nws mus rau lub cev ntawm lub tsheb hauv ncig. Cia siv quav ciab kom qhuav rau ib cov lus qhia ntim khoom thiab tom qab ntawd siv cov ntaub mos huv, muag muag kom nws los yog hluav taws xob tsis zoo. Them nyiaj tshwj xeeb rau thaj chaw ib puag ncig chrome, lub qhov rooj nqa, thiab xws li nws tuaj yeem nyuaj rau tshem cov ciab ntawm cov chaw no.4. UAE KEV PUB-19: Yuav ua li cas kom menyuam muaj kev nyab xeeb rau hauv pas dej thiab chaw ua si thaum muaj kev sib kisTab sis, thaum peb rhuav daim kab xev viav vias thiab cov plua plav tawm ntawm cov viav vias thiab cov dej ntws, nws yooj yim kom tsis nco qab tias tus kab mob no tsis tau ploj mus. Txawm hais tias cov nqi them rov qab yog siab thiab cov nkhaus tau ploj zuj zus mus, tseem muaj pua pua ntawm Covid-19 cov neeg mob tshiab tau qhia txhua hnub, thiab peb txhua tus tau paub txog qhov ua tau los ntawm nthwv dej thib ob. Yog li qhov kev nyab xeeb yog kev coj peb cov me nyuam rov qab mus rau hauv cov chaw ua si nraum zoov? Tab sis nws yog ib lo lus nug ntawm kev hnyav ntawm qhov kev pheej hmoo tiv thaiv qhov txiaj ntsig ntawm muaj peev xwm rov qab qee qhov kev xav ntawm qhov tsis xws li - rau peb cov menyuam yaus lub hlwb thiab lub cev kev noj qab haus huv, nrog rau kev lag luam. Yog tias koj tab tom noj koj cov me nyuam tawm mus rau cov chaw ua si lom zem hauv Dubai thaum muaj kev kis thoob ntiaj teb, ntawm no yog qee qhov uas koj tuaj yeem txo cov kev pheej hmoo: Cov chaw ua si thiab cov chaw ua si hauv dej nyab xeeb tuaj saib tam sim no? Tej zaum nws yuav kub sab nraud, tab sis nws muaj kev nyab xeeb dua - hais txog kev pheej hmoo tus kab mob - yuav tsum tau ua si sab nraud sab nraud dua li sab hauv, hais tias Dr Chiv Keeb 'Fiona Rennie. \"Chaw ua si nraum zoov thiab pas dej muaj qhov muaj txiaj ntsig ntawm huab cua ntshiab thiab qhov chaw ntau ntawm cov neeg dua li thaj chaw sab hauv. Yog tias koj yuav tawm hauv tsev dua nws muaj kev nyab xeeb dua rau sab nraud, qhov twg cov pa tawm tuaj yeem pab tiv thaiv tus kab mob, dua li hauv khw, qhov twg muaj cua tsawg dua. \" Dr Erin Bromage, tus kws tshaj lij ntawm Biology ntawm University of Massachusetts Dartmouth hais tias, \"Qhov chaw sab hauv huab cua, nrog huab cua tsis tshua hloov pauv lossis rov qab siv cov cua thiab cov neeg muaj ntau tus neeg.uas kawm txog kev siv tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob ua lub luag haujlwm rau kev tiv thaiv los ntawm tus kab mob sib kis. Txawm li cas los xij, nyob rau hauv qhov kub ntawm UAE, nco ntsoov tias koj tab tom tshav ntuj ntse, kom tsis txhob khiav mus rau lwm qhov teeb meem kev noj qab haus huv: \"Huab cua sov yuav cuam tshuam rau koj tus menyuam lossis menyuam vim lawv lub cev tsis tuaj yeem hloov pauv mus rau qhov ntsuas kub raws li cov neeg laus , \"hais tias Dr Rennie. \"Cov menyuam mos thiab menyuam yaus tawm hws tsawg dua, txo lawv lub cev lub peev xwm txias kom txias, thiab lawv tsim kom muaj cua sov ntau dua thaum tawm dag zog ntau dua li cov neeg laus. Cov menyuam yaus thiab cov menyuam yaus muaj qhov tsis zoo ntawm lub cev qhuav dej thiab mob stroke dua li cov neeg laus thiab tsis tuaj yeem qhia koj tias lawv yog overheating. \" Cov kws tshawb fawb tau pom tias SARS-CoV-2 tseem tuaj yeem siv sijhawm ntev txog 72 teev rau ntawm cov yas thiab steel qhov chaw, thiab ntev txog 8 teev rau ntawm tooj liab thiab duab los qhia. Peb tseem paub tias nws muaj peev xwm rau ib tus neeg kis tus kab mob los ntawm kov cov khoom tsis huv, thiab tom qab ntawd kov lawv lub qhov ntswg, qhov ncauj lossis qhov muag (txawm hais tias qhov no tsis xav tias yog txoj kev tseem ceeb ntawm tus kabmob kis mus). Yog li cov yas thiab yas ua si thaj chaw kov, kov los ntawm ntau cov menyuam yaus txhais tes, yog qhov pheej hmoo. Txawm hais tias Dubai Municipality cov lus qhia thiab cov txheej txheem rau kev rov qhib dua yuav tsum tau ua si cov khoom ua si kom huv si tsawg kawg ib zaug ib teev, kev nquag ntxuav los yog ntxuav tu koj tus menyuam txhais tes yuav txo qhov kev pheej hmoo no ntxiv. \"Yog tias tsis muaj chav da dej nyob ze kom ntxuav me nyuam cov tes tas li, nqa tus tshuaj ntxuav tes nrog rau lub taub dej nrog kom yaug txhua qhov xuab zeb lossis av tawm ntawm txhais tes ua ntej siv cov tshuaj ntxuav tes (ntxuav tes huv si tsis zoo ntawm qhov qias neeg lossis ntxuav tes),\" Dr. Rennie. \"Yog tias noj mov tom chaw ua si nco ntsoov koj ntxuav koj tus menyuam txhais tes ua ntej thiab ntxuav lawv txhais tes tom qab tawm ntawm chaw ua si.\" Txawm li cas los xij,Cov chav da dej pej xeem tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev pheej hmoo loj hauv lawv tus kheej, Dr Bromage hais tias: \"Cov chav da dej muaj ntau qhov chaw muaj peev xwm kov tau, lub tes tuav qhov rooj, tus kais dej, lub qhov rooj muag khoom. Yog li [tus kab mob] hloov kev pheej hmoo hauv qhov chaw no tuaj yeem siab. paub seb ib tug neeg tso cov khoom kis mus rau hauv cov quav los yog muaj cov kab mob uas tsis huv, tab sis peb paub tias qhov tso quav tso zis tso pa tawm ua rau muaj ntau yam mob ua kom mob. Thaum koj yuav xav tias hnub ci nplaim taws no hauv UAE tuaj yeem ua raws li nws tus kheej tshuaj tua kab mob rau cov kab mob ntawm cov khoom ua si sab nraum zoov, tam sim no cov pov thawj tsis meej. Lub Koom Haum Ntiaj Teb Kev Noj Qab Haus Huv Ameslikas debunked lub luag haujlwm ntawm lub hnub ci hauv kev tua tus kabmob coronavirus yog ib qho ntawm nws cov tswvyim hais ua dabneeg rau WHO. Txawm li cas los xij, txoj kev tshawb fawb tau tshaj tawm hauv Phau Ntawv Xov Xwm ntawm Cov Neeg Muaj Kab Mob hauv 20 Lub Tsib Hlis 2020 xaus lus tias simulated lub hnub ci sai sai ua rau tsis muaj zog SARSCoV-2 ntawm thaj chaw. Txawm li cas los xij, cov kws tshawb nrhiav tau taw qhia tias huab cua huab cua hauv cheeb tsam thiab qhov loj me me tuaj yeem cuam tshuam txoj kev muaj sia nyob ntawm tus kab mob rau ntawm thaj chaw, yog li kev tshawb fawb ntxiv xav tau kom nkag siab txog qhov cuam tshuam ntawm tshav ntuj rau kis kab mob. Cov menyuam yaus puas xav nrug kev sib raug zoo? Kev sib cais deb heev yog qhov tseem ceeb ua rau tiv thaiv kev kis - thiab nws kuj nyuaj kawg nrog kev tswj hwm nrog menyuam. Dubai Municipality cov txheej txheem rau rov qhib chaw ua si sab nraum zoov yuav tsum kom cov neeg muaj kev sib nrug ob-mais deb nyob ib leeg - nrog rau tsis txhob siv cov viav vias uas nyob ib sab yog tias tsis muaj kev ncua deb ntawm lawv - thiab uas nyob hauv cov chaw ua si qhov twg nyuaj rau kev ua si yuav tsum muaj qhov siab tshaj qhov muaj peev xwm tsis pub tshaj. Cov qhov ncauj qhov ntswg phais thiab daim npog qhov ncauj yog ob qho tsim nyog,Txawm tias lub npog qhov ncauj qhov ntswg tuaj yeem pab ntes cov tee dej uas tsim thaum ib tug neeg txham lossis hnoos. Dr Fiona Rennie los ntawm Chiv Keeb Kho Mob hauv Dubai hais tias \"Lub ntsej muag ob xyoos yuav tsum hnav lub qhov ncauj sab nraud. \"Txawm li cas los xij yog tias koj tus menyuam tseem niaj hnub kov lawv lub ntsej muag lossis rov kho lub npog ntsej muag ces hnav lub npog ntsej muag tuaj yeem ua rau muaj kev phom sij thiab ua rau muaj kev pheej hmoo kis tus kabmob. CDC hais tawm cov pov thawj qhia tias Covid-19 tsis tuaj yeem kis mus rau tib neeg los ntawm cov dej ua si feem ntau. Tsis tas li ntawd, \"kev ua haujlwm zoo ntawm cov chaw muaj dej thiab tua kab mob ntawm cov dej (nrog chlorine lossis bromine) yuav tsum ua rau tus kabmob tsis ua haujlwm uas ua rau Covid-19.\" Yog li, yog tias koj ntseeg tau tias cov pas dej da dej chlorine qib tau raug tswj xyuas kom zoo (raws li lawv yuav tsum ib Dubai Lub Nroog xav tau) tom qab ntawd nyob hauv pas dej da li lwm tus yuav tsum nyab xeeb. Yog tias koj coj koj tus menyuam mus rau tom qhov chaw ua si uas muaj lwm tus menyuam yaus nws tsis tuaj yeem tshem tawm txoj kev pheej hmoo ntawm kev kis tus kabmob coronavirus kiag li. Txawm li cas los xij, ntau tshaj peb lub hlis ntawm kev sib cais thiab koom tes hauv tsev yuav muaj kev pheej hmoo rau peb cov menyuam txoj kev mob hlwb. Dr Rennie hais tias \"Muaj ntau cov lus ceeb toom txog teeb meem kev coj tus cwj pwm, ntxhov siab thiab qhov tseem ceeb thiab pw tsaug zog kev pw tsaug zog hauv cov menyuam yaus thaum lub caij muab xauv cia uas qhia tau tias lawv muaj kev ntxhov siab.\" \"Tawm mus, huab cua ntshiab, nrog chav khiav thiab ua si yog qhov zoo rau menyuam yaus lub hlwb kev noj qab haus huv thiab rov qab qee theem ntawm qhov ib txwm muaj. Nws muaj kev nyab xeeb muab kev sib txawv ntawm zej zog yog pom thiab lub qhov ncauj qhov ntswg yog hnav thaum tsim nyog.\"
What Would Happen If a Charger Tried to Pull More Current Than a QC 3.0 Source Can Output?
There are four possibilities maybe more but mostly 4.One the voltage will drop relative to the current being pulled. The voltage source is going out of regulation.Two the regulator will going into a overload mode and turn off Many Regulators have self protection circuits. This may cycle on and off until the condition is fixed. Three, the circuit will burn or short circuit or some other destructive state. A burned fuse or inductor or mosfet or ic. Four, unlikely, the circuit will go into a current limit mode.There is no way to know without all the part numbers and schematic. Of both your charger and the target (how it will act to under current conditions is even more complicated and guesswork) So best to not overload your circuit. The significant difference between the two source power output should be enough to make this common senseI've got this charger: It takes 12.7 - 16V input from a car and outputs 13.05V at 6.1A (80W)I want to utilize a USB-PD and / or USB-C QC 3.0 charger.I can get a USB-C trigger: It connects to a USB-C QC or PD power source and allows me to select the output voltage.What I want to do is connect:QC 3.0 Power Supply -> USB trigger set to output 12V -> 12V car charger for DJI battery -> DJI batteryThe idea is to use a QC 3.0 power supply to recharge a DJI battery (albeit slowly).QC 3.0 can only output up to 18W of power, so if I used the USB trigger to select 12V as the output voltage, the QC 3.0 source would only output a max of 1.5A, but the DJI battery charger wants to output 80W of power.Would this destroy the QC 3.0 source? Or would the QC 3.0 source just happily output a continuous 12V @ 1.5A and the DJI charger would simply charge the batteries at a slower rate (18W?) without damaging anything?·OTHER ANSWER:I've got this charger: It takes 12.7 - 16V input from a car and outputs 13.05V at 6.1A (80W)I want to utilize a USB-PD and / or USB-C QC 3.0 charger.I can get a USB-C trigger: It connects to a USB-C QC or PD power source and allows me to select the output voltage.What I want to do is connect:QC 3.0 Power Supply -> USB trigger set to output 12V -> 12V car charger for DJI battery -> DJI batteryThe idea is to use a QC 3.0 power supply to recharge a DJI battery (albeit slowly).QC 3.0 can only output up to 18W of power, so if I used the USB trigger to select 12V as the output voltage, the QC 3.0 source would only output a max of 1.5A, but the DJI battery charger wants to output 80W of power.Would this destroy the QC 3.0 source? Or would the QC 3.0 source just happily output a continuous 12V @ 1.5A and the DJI charger would simply charge the batteries at a slower rate (18W?) without damaging anything?
Sab saum toj 10 nqe lus nug Txog Led Lub Teeb Teb
Xav tias kev coj teeb pom kev zoo kuj tseem yuav tshiab rau ntau tus neeg, peb muab kaum nqe lus nug thiab cov lus teb hais txog kev coj teeb pom kev zoo rau koj los pib.1. Sab nraum zoov kab tshoob txais tos Teeb pom kev zoo Cov lus qhia rau hmo ntuj zooYog li, ib qho tseem ceeb uas koj tsis xav kom ploj yog lub teeb pom kev. Yog tias koj yuav ua kom koj lub teeb pom kev zoo sab nraum zoov, koj yuav tsum tau nqis peev hauv qee qhov teeb pom kev zoo tshaj plaws muaj. Thaum ua tiav zoo, lub teeb pom kev zoo tuaj yeem ua rau txhua yam zoo. Qhov tsim nyog ntawm cov teeb pom kev zoo tuaj yeem tso rau txhua yam ntawm tus nkauj nyab rooj noj mov mus rau rooj ua las voos, khoom qab zib kab tshoob thiab lwm yam. Nov yog qee qhov kev qhia los pab koj xaiv qhov tsim nyog, sab nraum zoov chaw txais tos teeb pom kev zoo. Pin Spot Pin chaw teeb pom kev zoo yog lub nqaj ntawm lub teeb uas tsim los ci ncaj qha rau ntawm ib yam dab tsi xws li lub tshoob ncuav mog qab zib, lub rooj ua khoom plig, lossis txawm tias qhib bar. Kev Ntxuav Xim Xim Qhov no yog pam ntawm lub teeb ua ke. Lawv tuaj yeem muab tso rau ntawm thaj chaw ib qho los tsim kev tawm tsam. Gobos Cov no yog cov stencils uas tuaj yeem muab tso rau ntawm lub teeb ntawm lub rooj tshoob sab nraud txais tos los tsim tus qauv lossis tsim cov lus hais. Qee tus siv cov no los sau cov sijhawm, cov npe ntawm tus nkauj nyab thiab nraug vauv, thiab lwm yam. LED LED teeb pom kev zoo yog nrov heev rau kev ua tshoob kos sab nraum zoov. Los nyob hauv txhua qhov xim, duab, thiab qhov loj me, cov teeb no muaj ntau dua kev ua haujlwm thiab lub zog. Txoj Hlab Teeb Ua raws li lub npe txhais, cov no yog cov hlua ntawm lub teeb ntawm txoj hlua zoo ib yam li cov ntawm Christmas ntoo. Tam sim no koj muaj kev nkag siab zoo ntawm hom nrov tshaj plaws ntawm sab nraum zoov tshoob kos teeb. Cov lus qhia ntxiv tom qab kom ua rau koj txais tos lit txhua hmo ntev yog xaiv cov teeb pom kev zoo uas haum rau cov qauv ntawm koj lub tshoob. Classic Yog tias koj tab tom yuav nrog lub rooj tshoob kho kom zoo nkauj,koj tuaj yeem xav mus nrog lub rooj teeb pom kev zoo xws li nyiaj tswm ciab nyiaj tswm ciab. Qhov no yuav muab tawm ntawm lub ntsej muag zoo nkauj. Cov tswm ciab yog ib lub tswv yim zoo rau kab tshoob kev kos. Nws teeb tsa suab nrov heev, tsis tshua muaj suab nrov. Rustic Xav Ntau ntawm barn-style tshoob kev txais tos? Vim li cas tsis mus nrog tej yam xws li lub teeb lag luam? Lawv yog cov ntau dua li qhov nruab nrab Christmas ntoo teeb nrog txhua lub teeb muab tawm ntawm lub teeb pom kev zoo. Cov no yuav zoo rau hauv ob sab phlu chav ua yeeb yam lossis qhov rooj nkag mus rau koj lub tsev pheebsuab tshoob sab nraum zoov. Romantic Yog tias koj tab tom nrhiav kom pom lub tswv yim teeb pom kev zoo tiag tiag, cov teeb moos soos hais lus tagnrho. Tso cai rau koj tus qhua tso cov yeeb yuj teeb txawb rau saum ntuj thaum hmo ntuj uas koj saib thiab nco txog koj hnub tshwj xeeb. Edgy Yog tias koj mus rau me ntsis ntxiv ntawm qhov kev xav edgy, tom qab ntawd cov xim teeb yog koj tus phooj ywg zoo tshaj. Xaiv cov xim zoo nkauj thiab xim ntaj uas ua rau nqe lus. Koj yuav txawm mus rau ib qho me ntsis ntxiv niaj hnub thiab xaiv cov qauv teeb lossis lub teeb uas hloov xim rau cov pop ntxiv. Yuav ua li cas hom teeb pom kev zoo koj yuav muaj nyob rau ntawm koj sab nraum zoov tshoob txais tos? Txhua tus neeg xav kom tau txais nyob rau pem teb las voos thiab seev cev hmo ntuj. Yog tias koj tab tom npaj sab nraum zoov tshoob txais tos, teeb pom kev zoo yog txhua yam. Nws tuaj yeem nqa ib lub tsev pheebsuab sab nraud los ntawm theem pib thiab drab mus rau zes thiab xav tsis thoob hauv vib nas this. Nco ntsoov tias koj xaiv lub teeb pom kev zoo uas yuav kos kom pom tseeb ntawm cov lus qhia ntxaws ntawm koj lub tshoob thiab tseem ua rau tog kev lom zem nyob hmo ntuj.2. Nrog tag nrho cov lus hais txog kev txwv qhov muag tsis sib tw, puas muaj lwm txoj hauv kev uas tsis muaj qhov muag teeb rau fluorescent teeb pom kev zoo?Cov teeb roj teeb hluav taws xob tawm ntawm UV hluav taws xob, yog li nws tsis zoo rau koj lub qhov muag ib qho. UV-thaiv cov tes tsho, npog thiab vaj huam sib luag yog muaj rau lub teeb roj fluorescent. Tshwj tsis yog tias lawv yog tus qauv, cov hlab cua ntev, lub qhov muag roj fluorescent feem ntau tau kib; Kuv xav tias lawv rhiab ntau dua rau cov xim av outs thiab lub hwj huam spikes. Lawv tuaj yeem mess koj lub TV txais tos thiab yeej xov tooj cua AM. LED teeb pom kev zoo tuaj yeem nyab xeeb, nyob ntawm cov khw. Nws yog qhov zoo tshaj tus nqi tshaj li fluorescent ... txawm li cas los xij, hauv kuv kev paub, tsis yog tus qauv hluav taws xob tsis dhau lossis LED teeb kom ntev li ntev li lub teeb pom kev zoo (vim muaj teeb meem kev tsim khoom), txawm tias lawv tau cog lus tias yuav siv sijhawm ntev dua. Cov taws LED tau kim heev nyob rau lub sijhawm tam sim no, thiab tuaj yeem muaj teeb meem nrog lawv tshaj tawm lub teeb pom kev ntau dhau, qee qhov tuaj yeem ua kev puas tsuaj rau koj lub qhov muag, tab sis tsis hais qhov twg, lub teeb ci tuaj yeem hnyav. Lwm qhov teeb meem nrog LED teeb pom kev yog tau txais lub teeb dawb. Nws yog ib qho nyuaj rau muab cov xim thiab ua rau qhov sib zog xwb tsuas yog txoj cai kom tau txais xim zoo nkauj, dawb xim. Cov LEDS dawb yuav zoo li ua rau xiav tsaus. Sib nrug ntawm ob qho no, ob qho koj tau siv hluav taws xob ntau, lossis koj tau lumens lumens (siv lub teeb). Tsis tas li, nrog lwm txoj hauv kev, nws yog qhov nyuaj rau nyeem ntawv lossis lub teeb dawb thiab koj tuaj yeem ntsib teeb meem nrog lawv cov cua sov.
Txhua Yam Khoom Saib Xyuas Vaj Ntsej Muag
Ib chav ntawm tag nrho cov khoom tu tawv nqaij yog tsim kho me me ntawm lub platform ntawm kev lag luam tshuaj pleev ib ce. Cov khoom siv ntuj tsim muaj cov khoom ntshiab thiab ntuj tsim tau los ntawm cov khoom muaj peev xwm. Xwm muaj ntau yam kev pab uas tau yog ib feem ntawm txoj cai kev zoo nkauj rau xyoo.Cov khoom siv tawv nqaij kom pab ua kom tawv nqaij lub ntsej muag ua kom tawv nqaij thiab ua rau lub ntsej muag ua kom tawv nqaij. Cov no kuj txhawb nqa kom zoo thiab tiv thaiv daim tawv nqaij tiv thaiv kev puas tsuaj. Kev siv ntawm cov khoom ntuj zoo nkauj txhim kho sab ntsuj plig, cov haujlwm tseem ceeb thiab qhov pom tseeb, muab txoj hauv kev kom muaj kev nyob nyab xeeb thiab lub zog zoo nkaujTsis yog txhua leej txhua tus yog tshuaj pleev ib ce huv. Cov khoom lag luam zoo nkauj no muaj cov khoom siv los ntawm cov tsiaj thiab nroj tsuag uas tsis yog 100% ntshiab. Cov khoom siv ntuj tsim tuaj yeem yog cov organic zoo li tsis muaj ntxig. Qee cov khoom ua los ntawm cov khoom xyaw inorganic tuaj yeem tsim kev puas tsuaj rau daim tawv nqaij tab sis ib qho yog tsim los ntawm 100% cov ntshiab thiab cov khoom xyaw organic yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws rau kev kho mob ntawm daim tawv nqaij.Cov neeg niaj hnub no tau hloov ntau dua rau cov khoom tu tawv nqaij organic vim tias lawv tau ua los ntawm cov ntshiab, nyab xeeb, huv si thiab muaj cov khoom siv cog rau ntawm cov nroj tsuag, tu lub ecology kom tiav thiab muab lub ntsej muag zoo dua rau cov tawv nqaij thiab ntev dua kev zoo nkauj. Cov khoom siv hauv cov feem ntau yog zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, Aloe Vera, txiv roj roj, roj taum castor, cloves, txiv hmab txiv ntoo, mis nyuj, zib ntab, tshuaj yej ntoo, lavender, txiv maj phaub mis, eucalyptus roj thiab sawv. Cov khoom siv tsis muaj tshuaj lom no ua rau cov tawv nqaij ua pa thiab ua pa, pub rau lub ntsej muag thiab qhov tshiab.Feem ntau cov teeb meem ntawm daim tawv nqaij niaj hnub no yog pob txuv thiab pob. Kev lag luam ntawm anti wrinkle cov khoom tu tawv nqaij tau loj hlob zoo heev. Is Nrias teb yog lub chaw rau tag nrho cov khoom zoo nkauj muaj qhov chaw lag luam loj tshaj plaws rau anti wrinkle khoom zoo li. Cov tib neeg hauv Is Nrias teb raug kev puas tsuaj ntawm daim tawv nqaij feem ntau vim yog hnub tiv thaiv tshav ntuj thiab cov khoom tiv thaiv wrinkles pab lawv tawm tsam cov tawv nqaij puas tsuaj.Ntau tus neeg ua qhov kev tshawb fawb txog kev ua lag luam thiab tau txais kev pab los ntawm ntau cov kws tshaj lij tawv nqaij kom cov khoom lag luam kom zoo dua. Cov khoom lag luam wholesale tawv muag suav nrog kev tsim cov tshuaj pleev, pleev, tshuaj pleev thaiv hnub, tshuaj pleev ib ce, tshuaj pleev ib ce thiab hmo ntuj rov qab muaj nyob rau hauv kev ua lag luam rau txiv neej thiab poj niam.Vim li cas ib tus tsis nco qab tias daim tawv nqaij zoo nkauj yog qhov txiaj ntsig ntawm lub cev noj qab nyob zoo. Yog tias ib tus neeg lub cev thiab lub hlwb zoo, cov tawv nqaij yuav ci ib txwm thiab yuav tsis xav kom muaj ib qho tshuaj pleev ib ce los txhim kho lub cev ua haujlwm li qub. Kev noj zaub mov zoo nrog cov khoom noj khoom haus kom muaj txiaj ntsig yog yuav ib txwm xav txog kev zoo nkauj.Niaj hnub no muaj ntau heevtshuaj ntsuab pab raumuaj nyob rau hauv kev ua lag luam. Cov tshuaj no tau ua los ntawm ntau yam ntujtshuaj ntsuabuas tau raug pov thawj pom tias muaj txiaj ntsig zoo hauv kev saib xyuas kev noj qab haus huv. Kom tau cov ntaub ntawv ntxaws ntxaws txog cov tshuaj ntsuab no thov nyem rau ntawm cov txuas.
The Hottest Questions About Power Supply
Do you want to know about power supply? Here are some frequently asked questions.1. Will this video card work with this power supply?It needs approximately 149 Watt because the PSU requirements on most graphic cards are not really what they need to be. I am running a HD 4650 that needs "400W" but I only have 305W and has been working well for 2 years. Oh yeah not sure if it needs a 6 pin power connector so can not help you on that question. At the bottom is a link to "REAL" PSU requirements. EDIT: Oh I just looked on amazon and the XFX version needs a 6 pin power connector so it just depends on your model. I prefer XFX brand.2. How does a switching power supply differ from a power supply?Edit, solutions is doing weird and wonderful issues. I even have got here upon that while you are applying/ construction some thing with diverse relays, and applying SPDT and DPDT relays, it fairly is extra low priced interior the long-term to apply DPDT relays in determination to SPDT relays. it can be a 3PST Wingman3. Why is my power supply not staying on?A few ideas (and no, I am not making ANY assumption on your knowledge/Tech Level) A) Is board touching the case (Mounted correctly) B) Have you Disconnect all Peripherals and just booted the board. C) Are you using on-board Video or a separate Card (Voltages) Different cards (Video) use different voltages, the same as CPU's etc so I would disconnect all the extras and just boot the board. Does it beep? If the shut down is instant, then I would look towards you having a bad Motherboard (and/or CPU) but generally I would lean towards the board, but bear in mind, I am not there to assess, nor here to Judge.. Did you connect the speaker so you can hear any Bios Beep codes?4. Help with creating a computer--Power Supply?It depends on what you are going to be using it for besides average gaming. If you are going to power two monitors and color laser printer and some external USB drives as well as a high end multi-core CPU 600w wo not do. Some gamers get a bigger than necessary PS since they know they with get more memory, solid state harddrives, etc as their budget allows ( 1000W makes sense). However, if you are running only one monitor, no externals, and have a reasonable CPU 600 w is sufficient5. Power supply problem on my laptop?Your battery may be completely discharged. Just like other rechargeable NI-CD batteries, the Lithium-Ion battery will eventually loose its ability to keep its charge. The most simple solution is to buy a new battery.6. Buck converter based switching power supply?This is a simplified version of the circuit you have. Note the polarity is backwards from your circuit:7. How to test a Power Supply?Power supply Tester. They are cheap and will test ALL of your out put voltages and wattage. You can get them about anywhere. Very smart thing to do!8. 12VDC power supply for backyard stereo?go find your self a old pc in the trash and gank the power supply and tie into the 12vdc lines9. What power supply do i get?450w is fine!10. will my power supply power a 9600gt?It really depends on how long and how hard you push your system, you max out your wattage all the time might burn out that PSU, but most likly not11. help about power supply please?while a capability furnish is rated at 4 hundred watts meaning it may furnish as much as 4 hundred watts of DC capability. the capability furnish takes AC capability out of your wall outlet at a hundred and twenty volts and converts it to 12v, 5v, 3.3v DC for the drives, CPU, motherboard, and so forth. .. the certainty is that your computing device will use around one hundred watts AC capability or much less. A Kill-A-Watt meter might properly be bought for around $20 and that assist you to comprehend the real capability utilization of any equipment12. Power supply upgrade? ?Put it this way, a good quality 460W PSU may be better than a cheap 500W PSU. The key thing is the 12V current capacity, and the 6870 requires two PCI-E 6 pin power connectors. Most 460W PSU have only one, or none. So, I do question how they can properly power the 6870 with a 460W PSU, unless they had one designed to match the card. Do not accept that system if they use Molex to PCI-E power adapters, that can cause voltage drops and strange video card problems... PS: Their web site says there is an option for a 6770 video card, no mention of the 6870... A 6770 will run with a 450W PSU...
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